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Information Technology Systems in Universities Coursework

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Updated: Sep 20th, 2022

Challenges faced by the two universities with regard to the new technology

The two case studies provide information about two universities that have adopted information technology (IT) systems aimed to foster communication. I bring to your attention the challenges faced by the two campuses in their efforts to embrace IT systems. Campus A faced many challenges at the start of the new IT system. First, it was identified that most of the data sets available online were not readable. Second, the budget management system within the campus was not effective (Kahn, 2000).

Campus B faced two major challenges when implementing the new IT system. First, the campus had limited support attributed to the unsuitable background of the director of archives. Second, the campus faced the problem of the limited approach because it allocated all its funds toward developing a conceptual plan for managing electronic records. In addition, the funds were used to hire a small number of staff. Most of the hired personnel were not faculty members (Kahn, 2000).

Strategies used to solve the challenges

Many organizations face challenges when adopting new IT systems. The pace at which the new systems are successfully implemented largely depends on the strategies employed by organizations to solve challenges they face (Lucas Jr & Baroudi, 1994). I think that the case studies clearly demonstrate how the two campuses handled the challenges they faced. The records archivist in Campus A concentrated on upgrading the university’s online databases so that they could be accessible by members of the campus and external users. Campus A opted for a broad approach to the implement the IT system. It incorporated members to oversee the planning and implementation from within and outside the campus. The diverse composition of the implementing team ensured that the campus could communicate effectively with other campuses. In other words, the campus succeeded in forming alliances with other institutions crucial for learning. In addition, the campus adopted a new budget management system that allowed faster communication between personnel in the archives office and clients. These two approaches adopted by Campus A enabled it to handle the challenges faced early during the implementation of the new IT system (Kahn, 2000).

On the other hand, I believe that the new system adopted by Campus B failed because it did not utilize good strategies to handle challenges identified during implementation. One strategy that Campus B adopted was working with a limited number of experts, mostly drawn from outside the campus. The other strategy was focusing on a small number of records. The two strategies were not successful (Kahn, 2000).

The social action theory

I think that the social action theory is a useful model for deciphering the relative success or failure of each of the two universities. The social action theory provides researchers with evidence-based understanding of why human beings behave in particular ways (May et al., 2009). May and colleagues (2009) argue that behavior could be rational, traditional or affective. In fact, the social theory has been used to study why people exhibit deviant behaviors that are not recognized as standard in the society. The theory could be used to examine the failure and/or success of the IT systems adopted by the two campuses by comparing the observed outcomes of the IT systems against the expected outcomes. For instance, it could be expected that organizations that adopt a broad approach to the adoption of IT systems could have better outcomes than those that adopt a limited approach. This is clearly presented in the two case studies.

Implications of the case studies

Universities across the world are bound by tradition and are faced with the challenge of adopting changes in their operations. On the other hand, other organizations are characterized by significant flexibility that enables them to make great changes in their operations, which often correlate with improvement in performances (Lucas Jr & Baroudi, 1994). The case studies have important implications for organizations that are not bound by tradition. First, organizations that accept changes have the advantage of involving others in their operations. This would involve a broad-based approach to issues that would result in improvement of performance outcomes. Second, organizations that are not bound by tradition would benefit from the adoption of IT systems in the modern world. IT systems are important applications that solve many organizational problems and improve efficiency of employees and overall performance of organizations. The case studies demonstrate that organizations should not be bound by tradition.

Degree of confirmation of denial

The two case studies confirm the research presented in this week’s articles to a high degree. Hitt and Brynjolfsson (1997) assess the relationship between IT and the organizational platforms. The study authors assume that complex firms adopt systems that could help them decentralize activities (Hitt & Brynjolfsson, 1997). The authors establish that organizations that significantly invest in IT tend to have decentralized units that are crucial in supporting the IT systems (Lucas Jr & Baroudi, 1994) identify variables that could be utilized to design organizations. The variables discussed are common in the workplace. The study authors conclude that there is a high correlation between the design of IT systems and organizations. In conclusion, the two articles support the importance of aligning IT systems with organizational variables.


Hitt, L. M., & Brynjolfsson, E. (1997). Information technology and internal firm organization: an exploratory analysis. J. of Management Information Systems, 14(2), 81-102. Web.

Kahn, R. L. (2000). The Effect of Technological Innovation on Organizational Structure. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 14(3), 328-347. Web.

Lucas Jr, H. C., & Baroudi, J. (1994). The role of information technology in organization design. Journal of Management Information systems, 10(4), 9-23. Web.

May, C. R., Mair, F., Finch, T., MacFarlane, A., Dowrick, C., Treweek, S.,… & Montori, V. M. (2009). Development of a theory of implementation and integration:

Normalization Process Theory. 4(29), 29. n.d. Web.

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