Intelligence Quotient (IQ) refers to a standardized measure of human intelligence. The standard is dependent on deviations that an individual makes. According to psychologists, all individuals have a presumed IQ of 100. The standard deviation of 30 implies that an individual may fall short of 100 or exceed the standard.
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Hence, IQ ranges between 70 and 130. IQ scores help humans to predict achievement, needs or even performance of individuals (Bradberry & Greaves, 2009). Considering global trends and empirical data, human IQ seems to rise by an average of 3 scores across the world for every decade.
As such, it is not surprising that the intelligence of the American recruits has risen by 24 scores since the World War I. The phenomenon where the average intelligence rise across the world and overtime is known as the Flynn Effect. It implies that the world will have people of higher intelligence in the future whose mental faculties will mature at an accelerated rate.
There are various explanations of the Flynn effect. While Flynn does not agree that, the increment in IQ gains contributes to the effect, other proponents point out several issues that they see as important in enhancing IQ gains. Antonakis et al. (2009) say that education levels have risen across the world and consequently, the literacy levels have increased.
People are currently directing huge proportion of their disposable incomes to education, both formal and informal. To that end, it is logical to attribute increased value for learning and education to IQ gains. Second, they articulate that social dynamics and changes have contributed to IQ gains by global population. Societies are currently under the pressure to work within time spans that prompt adaptation of human IQ and other cognitive aspects to respond to pressure posed by time limits.
Another potential cause for the massive IQ gains is the improved nutrition and diet across the world. While it is true, that improved access and availability of nutritious food increases with time, so is the IQ gain (Martins et al., 2010). Nonetheless, debate rages on to the actual causes of rise in intelligence levels since there are other factors at play beyond the few above.
Besides, the reliability of IQ score as a method to measure intelligence has been under severe criticism since the components of intelligence remain partially unknown. In fact, it is arguable that IQ is in itself a component of intelligence. Similarly, the IQ gain comprising the Flynn effect has elicited different perspectives and theories.
The great divide in competencies refers to the gap that exists between emotions and the body. It is important as it helps people to understand various ways they can manage their social, professional and emotional skills. In addition, it facilitates the growth of emotional intelligence that reflects the combination of thoughts and feelings. To the contrary, human beings have competences that are purely cognitive such as logical thinking and reasoning.
The great divide is important since it helps in the management of self-awareness as we strive for personal competence (Bradberry & Greaves, 2009).
This entails ability to gain emotional awareness in which an individual is able to recognize his/her emotions and their implications on self and others. In addition, it leads to accurate self-assessment whereby a person comprehend their strong points and weaknesses that in turn leads to self-confidence.
Other aspects of personal competencies that the great divide brings out are self-regulation and motivation. Social competency also arises from the great divide where an individual becomes proficient in handling and developing others leading to an improvement in social competency and skills. In fact, it revolves around the ability to manage the human interactions patterns.
In this scenario, the IQ of US army recruits has grown substantially over the last decades. The proponent argues that in the context of recruitment process, recruits always react to their instincts and increases their ability to control their emotions and feelings.
Apparently, the process of recruitment involves extreme tests on individual’s emotional stability prompting the recruits to learn how to control the emotions (Brody, 2004). With the increased expectations from the recruits, the emotional intelligence develops as they encounter situations eliciting emotions.
Peter Principle refers to the aspect of organizational culture in which promotion into new positions will depend on the competencies of the individual. This implies that an individual whose competence is at peak cannot rise to a higher job in the hierarchy. The principle articulates that an individual will receive a promotion up to a particular point when their competencies will fall below the expectations and job requirements of the position (Martins et al., 2010).
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While we applaud the need for meritocracy in every organization, it is noticeable that at a given point all the positions in the hierarchy of organization will bear people who are not competent enough to carry out the job requirements. Through continued education and skills development, organizations are able to resolve the problems associated with The Peter Principle. Despite increase of competencies and skills of the employees, the principle predicts that the effect will return owing to consequent promotions.
The text claims that attention is the greatest resource since it is through it that people are able to comprehend the great divide in competencies. This enhances the development of cognitive processes such as self-awareness and self-confidence (Goleman, 2000).
Besides, attention helps people to understand the patterns of interaction with other people that they encounter in the mainstream society leading to superior social skills. Without attention, people could not be in a position to develop the emotional intelligence and other cognitive aspects.