Science reached a high degree of development during the Golden Age of Islam (750-1258). In confessional terms, most scholars were Muslims, but there were also Christians and Jews (Islam Empire of Faith). Islamic civilization’s influence spread from the Middle East to Southern Spain, where, in Cordoba, there was a place similar to the House of Wisdom (Islam Empire of Faith). The Golden Age, however, did not last forever due to military conflicts between Muslims and crusaders, and the invasion of Mongols.
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Contribution of the Islam Empire to modern science is enormous. Algebra, astronomy, medicine, optics, and trigonometry all have their roots in the teachings of Muslim scholars (Islam Empire of Faith). Baghdad was the most prominent city of the empire, and many scientists of the realm gathered there in the House of Wisdom to teach and research (Islam Empire of Faith). A similar activity was exercised in Cordoba, the city that strived while other capitals of Europe were struggling with starvation and infirmity. Several attempts were made by crusaders to take over Jerusalem and weaken the strength of the Islam Empire, but Saladin, the prominent Muslim leader, fought and retook Jerusalem (Islam Empire of Faith). The Islam Empire came to an end when Mongols invaded its territories and burned down the major cities (Islam Empire of Faith). Islam, however, as a religion, spread throughout Asia as Mongols, who came to invade, converted to Islam later.
Islamic culture, stretching from southern Spain to China, absorbed the achievements of scientists from various nationalities and religions. It manifested the knowledge of the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, achieving breakthroughs that set the stage for the Renaissance. All people were united by the Arabic language, which allowed scientists and theologians to exchange ideas and expertise. Under this movement, concentrated in the Baghdad House of Wisdom, explorers deciphered the Indian, Assyrian, Iranian and Greek scientific works into Arabic. These translations gave impetus to the advancement of medieval science.
Islam Empire of Faith. Public Broadcasting Service, 2014.