Architecture and Sculpture in Florence: 1400-1430
Compare the extent competition panels for the north doors of the baptistery of Florence. What are the “classicizing” elements of each panel? In what ways do they reveal the continuing Gothic tradition?
During the winter period (1400-01), an announcement was made regarding a contest of designing consequent Baptistery Doors to conform to a project that had been initiated 80 years before Andrea Pisano’s bronze doors. The first creation was aimed at decorating the outstanding doorways in the same style as the original one. The assessment of the north entrance by Lorenzo (1403 -1424) showed the design that Ghiberti observed in the initial project which was laid down by the 14th century.
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Nevertheless, the evaluation between the two different entries revealed the method of Andrea Pisano’s doors of exploring the design of a single panel. The success of Ghiberti and the subsequent status attained by him are dependent on two designs of bronze doors. Andrea Pisano and Lorenzo Ghiberti are successful late gothic artists, though the development of modern Gothic design in the 1330s and the early 15th century cannot be easily accounted for.
Discuss the niche figures of Osanmichele in terms of significance. What were the continuing Gothic aspects and what were advances towards “classicism”? How did they express contemporary concerns?
According to the Italian context, the term “Orsanmichele” refers to a House of worship located in Florence. The contemporary aspects of this niche are largely borrowed from the first creations that have already been kept in the museums. In Andrea Orcagna church, there is Andrea Orcagnas’s beguiled Gothic box (that existed in the era 1355 to1359), comprising of a redecoration by Bernado Daddi’s who came from the earlier ‘Madonna and Child’.
The look resembled fourteen architectural plan external positions, filled from 1399 till 1430. Orsanmichele’s statue is an artifact of intense commitment and honor traders from Frolence and a revelation that the best artwork is made from a competitive race. Many traders wish to do better than the others in bringing original new monuments for a demonstration to the public in the main street of Florence. Artists leased materials of a special type to illustrate the significance of this particular site. The diffuse views of the most contemporary sculptures are swapped in Donatello’s work with amazing and brazen gaze (Krautheimer 58).
Explain the significance of the theme of David for the city of Florence. How was it related to their history as a republic?
David, one of the most outstanding masterpieces of the Renaissance period, was created by Michelangelo, one of the greatest Italian artists of that period. It is meant that it was carved in 1501 – 1504. It is a sculpture of a nude young man who is seventeen feet high. It represents a Biblical David who is a favorite hero in Florence. When the sculpture was created, it was meant to become a part of a chain of sculptures of prophets on the top of the Florence cathedral.
However, the sculpture was located instead in a public garden in the exterior of Palazzo Della Sinoria, the base of the public in Florence, which was launched on 8th September 1504. Owing to the nature of the champion it represented, after a short period, it became a sign of the defense liberation expressed in the Republic of Florentine, a self-governing state that was threatened from all borders by conflicting states and the growing domination of the Medici family (Shearman 40).
Why was Ghiberti’s Dome a major achievement? In what ways was it still Gothic? In what ways might it reveal Ghiberti’s interest in ancient Roman architecture? What traits of the cathedral anticipate Early Renaissance architecture?
The placement of a roof on the many sides of the Baptistery dome was very challenging. Ghiberti addressed the problem through an innovation that was to be a major achievement. In 1420, Brunelleschi embarked on the dome of Florentine Cathedral with the help of Ghiberti. The structure had a frame of eight big stone beams enclosed by dual shells. The bottom parts were made from stone, while the higher portions were made of bricks, elected using herringbone plan, mostly borrowed from the old Roman architecture and also attractive materials. Owing to this, the first stages in the artwork of Renaissance on the exterior of Italy became hard to separate from the late Gothic.
Comparable to the Franche-Comte sanctuary, in the years 1513 – 1532, sculptures at Brou are likely to have defective Italian patterns, but a wide range of effect slightly differed from Henry VII’s sanctuary located in Westminster. The tabernacle of St. Sebaldus located at Nurnberg in (1508- 1519) resembles a Gothic tomb elected with covering, even if most details are Italian (Schneider 89).
The Foundling Hospital in Florence is usually cited as Brunelleschi’s first attempt at “classical” architecture. Why? What medieval characteristics remain?
It became the first construction in Florence to show the well-defined orientation of columns and capitals that resembled the classical days. The construction was imposing. It was elected with fine marbles and elegant inlays that represented medieval looks.
Brunelleschi’s San Lorenzo demonstrates his internalizing of classic architectural principles rather than the simple quotation of classical motifs as seen in the Foundling Hospital. Explain the correspondences of San Lorenzo that are based on Early Christian basilicas. What are some Romanesque traits that are “classicizing”?
Bacchus (1496 -1497) set up his recognition and started a task force for Pieta, the art of work of his first years, where he showed his special ability to create two different figures within a single marble. His marble David elected at the cathedral of Florence is a perfect example of Renaissance ultimate of impeccable humanity. On the other hand, he made some Madonnas as well as his commonly accepted stands painting meant for personal patrons. The typical character connected with him was ‘terribilit’. This term is an indication of a courageous amazing dignity. Replication of the creation of Adam in the Sistine Chapel Ceiling (Rome, Vatican) otherwise Moses from the burning shrine of Julias II (Rome, S Pietro in Vincoli) presented the concept of his art as one special expression of exceptional human power.
What was the significance of Brunelleschi’s use of a centralized plan for Santa Maria Degli Angeli?
He had a vision of arts and science subject hinged on humanistic ideology.
Brunelleschi’s buildings are often referred to as “paper architecture.” Explain what that means
Schemes that were hard to design were well-publicized due to reproductions in architectural related magazines.
Painting in Florence: 1400-1460
What were the characteristics of the International Style in the early 15th c. in Italy? Which patrons preferred it and why?
At the beginning of the 15th century, the period also known as traditional Renaissance, the International Gothic way represented the works of most Italian artists, such as Gentile da Fabriano, Antonio Pisanello, Sassett, and Giovanni di Paolo. However, there was a response against painting in Gothic style around the 1420s concerning the art of Masaccio, the statue of Donatello, and the art of Brunnelleschi who devised the mathematical theory of perspective. The origins of the Renaissance are connected with those three outstanding artists.
Its fast progress and success in Florence and Italy were influenced by the creation of human and scientific studies as well as the great support of wealthy and influential families, for example, Medici in Florence and Visconti in Milan. The blossoming of early Renaissance art is reflected in the statue of Ghiberti and Nanni di Banco together with the arts of Uccello, Manntegna, Piero Della Francsca, Verrocchio, Filippo Lippi, Ghirlandaio, Fra Angelandaio, and Botticelli. The patrons placed the consecrated figures within their World Small faith paintings that they owned since they were not displayed in the church. The upcoming middle class was interested in that kind of art.
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What was the “scientific” linear perspective, who is credited with its invention, and what were its principles??
Linear perspective is created when the rays of light go through an unreal rectangle to represent the painting to the viewers’ eyes. This resembles an observer who watches a painting or an image through a window. It was invented by Leonardo Da Vinci, the greatest Italian artist.
Compare Giotto’s Arena Chapel frescoes to that of Masaccio, How do they differ in their use of light and perspective? How is it related to contemporary politics and culture?
Just like other activists of those times, Giotto did not possess technical knowledge regarding perspective and anatomy which was learned later by the artists. However, Giotto possessed a considerable level of skills compared to his followers. In essence, he had a good understanding of human feelings together with what was critical to human life. On the other hand, and in contrast to Masaccio’s work, Giotto’s masterpieces were designed in three dimensions resembling a sense of space and depth.
This was achieved through his extraordinary application of modeling, linear perspective, and shadow. Masaccio created an emotion of mortality and distance from God by use of perspective. The fact that this kind of art was targeted at the public means that it could serve as civic art. It was also known from traditional literal descriptions and survivals hence serving a patriotic purpose. In this view, this form of art could attempt to infer a contemporary political angle from the antiquarian style of Masaccio and Giotto too (Krautheimer 56).
Masaccio’s Trinity is a significant advance in pictorial illusionism in that it seeks to join the fictive space with the real space of the viewer. How does he do it? What keeps the painting from successfully becoming trompe l’oeil? For what reasons might the International Style has been preferred by patrons? How does Masaccio’s Trinity seek to join the fictive space with the real space of the viewer?
The effect of a space displacement is positioned only in imagination as an illusion of an external beholder of alive existence, involving linking together an external and internal viewer. The boundary between fictive and real inner and outer reality is barred. Assuming that, this incidence of an observer is highly attained using works’ framing together with perspective. Then the eventual spatial uncertainty ensues the following barring, which is represented by the perspective depth, and by a resultant rupture happened because of such dislocated space and works’ bounding structure. Incorporation into the ceremonial performance of the architecture recognizes distinguished observers, relaying, and perception of a work that results from trompe l‘oeil.
What was Alberti’s implicit evidence for the argument that painting was one of the liberal arts?
Alberti argued that art is liberal whenever it conforms to three rationales or fundamental rational rules. These rules relate to Alberti’s favorite arts, that is why they are within theoretical traditional and play a critical role in human thoughts. Alberti blames such distinctive characteristics of Gentiles art as the liberal use of gold, the confused crowding of figures, and too much diversity that comes from bundling up of plane of pictures with an unrestrained combination of goods, people, animals, and architecture.
Even though the liberal exploitation of gold publicizes the value of the designed image, gold is largely used to imply golden things, therefore, making the materiality of noticeable things evident. Furthermore, in medieval art, gold is known for its magnificent splendor, though its splendor here is linked with the lighting of the scene together with mirrored light.
What advice did Alberti give to painters in his treatise On Painting?
Alberto advised using some approaches from mathematics for the things that relate to his subject. He emphasized that nature should be used to provide all the steps that are required for learning. The eventual objective of an artist, he claimed, was to copy nature. He recommended that sculptors and painters had to work hard to use their wide range of skills in that. They should have aimed at producing pieces of art that virtually had a certain resemblance to nature.
However, Alberti did not encourage the artists to follow nature without subjectivity. He emphasized that artists should focus on beauty because it matters a lot in painting. Alberti also emphasized that adding or subtracting something from a work of art without seeing the whole beauty from it is very difficult. Alberti described beauty as the harmony of the relationships of all the components. Therefore, “this concord is realized in a particular number, proportion, and arrangement demanded by harmony” (Krautheimer 56). Alberti’s views regarding harmony could be associated with Pythagoras, though the context was new and exhibited contemporary characteristics.
What is humanism?
It was an activity of educational reforms and culture created by civic leaders, writers, and scholars who are at present called renaissance humanists.
How were the Medici related to the Dominican church and convent of San Marco? How is their patronage revealed by Fra Angelico’s works for those sites?
The largest cells, 38 and 39, were created especially for Cosimo the Elder, the founder of a great medic dynasty, for him to be able to rest there. Moreover, a unique library of San Marco is found between cells 42 and 43. The library was the first public one in Europe. It was the preferred intellectual site in Florence during the times of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Moreover, it was also frequented by such persons as philosopher Pico Della Mirandola (1463-1494). Lorenzo de Medici or Lorenzo de Magnificent worked in the library from 1488. He entered religion in the Dominican monastery of San Marco later in his life.
During the fifteenth century, the Medici exerted great political power. Use one or more examples to explain how they appropriated civic and religious imagery to express their aspirations for princely and dynastic power
Medici is one of the most influential families during the 15th century. In the early 15th century, the special status of Medici is derived, which raises the wealth to unpredictable levels. Nevertheless, it was used for political purposes in a way that was improved by Cosimo, his son.
Explain some of the iconographic allusions in Fillipo Lippi’s Madonna and Child
There are some features of renaissance painting, which experienced significant evolution during this particular period. These features include perspective (the effect which is used to create the paintings and how this effect was obtained), and realism. This is significant in the representation of humanity, either as a narrative element or as symbolic.
How does Castagno convey figures’ emotions and character?
According to Castagno’s Last Supper, there is a symbol of Christ’s divinity represented as a vanishing point behind Christ’s head. Moreover, an equilateral triangle is used to represent Christ’s body to make the audience associate it with the infinite triangle and the Holy Trinity in general. By facing Eucharist, Christ is trying to say that ‘this is’ his body. The observer is made to suppose that Eucharist is the never-ending body.
What are some of the peculiarities of Castagno’s perspective?
Some of the earliest mural paintings, such as the Venice murals, are by Andrea. In these works, the artist’s eagerness to use the perspective is revealed to represent the physical density and monumentality of his figures. These approaches reflect Castagno’s use of scientific perspective and the impact of Masaccio’s pictorial illusionism on the artist.
Some of the “portrait” frescoes of Castagno and Ucello reveal the Humanist concern for fame. Explain
The development of portraiture showed the Renaissance keenness with individuality. It is also a show of humanism and the need to depart from the movement, which stands for the achievements of an individual. Portraits from earlier generations were mostly made in association with foundations of devotion, and there were especially imaginary. For example, the representations of the 13th century, such as those of Uta and Ekkehard in the cathedral of Naumburg, stood for earlier patrons of the cathedral.
The groundwork of the Renaissance can be linked to the job of the three men
Its fast advancement in Florence as well as in the rest of Europe was stimulated by the development of human and scientific studies due to the abundant support of the most prosperous and influential families, like Medici in Florence and Visconti in Milan. The blossoming of the early Renaissance can be seen in the statues of Ghiberti and Nanni di Banco together with the masterpieces of Uccello, Manntegna, Piero Della Francsca, Verrocchio, Filippo Lippi, Ghirlandaio, Fra Angelandaio, and Botticelli. The patrons placed the consecrated figures within their World Small faith paintings that they owned since they were not displayed in the church. The upcoming middle class was greatly interested in that kind of art
Sculpture and Architecture in Florence: 1430s-1460s
Who was Erasmo da Narni, and why the nickname?
Erasmo of Narni who is also referred to as Gattamelata – it was a nickname meaning ‘the Honeyed Cat’ – was a very popular condottieri or the Italian renaissance mercenary
The Rucellai family commissioned a new façade for Santa Maria Novella, a thirteenth-century Florentine church. Why was the façade significant?
This is chronologically the very first Florence basilica, and also the primary Dominican church of the city.
How did di Donatello shift the interest in the depiction of the nude?
Di Donatello thought that shifting towards nudity would enhance the presence of God as it was a common notion.
Why was the Medici commission for the statues of David different?
The statue of David was originally commissioned to be a part of many other statues of prophets, which were to be placed along the roof of Florence Cathedral. However, later, they were positioned in a public place, adjacent to Palazzo Della Signoria, which represented the civic seat of the Florence government. Considering that, the statue of a very prominent hero, defender of civil liberties, was later placed there, as a personification of the Florence Republic, a city-state which was full of rivals as well as the domination of the Medici family. David, the piece of art of Renaissance sculpture, was created by an Italian artist by the name Michelangelo in the year 1501-1504.
This seventeen-foot marble sculpture represents a nude male. The sculpture stands for David, the Biblical hero, which is a favorite topic in Florence art. Originally meant to be placed in a chain of sculptures of prophets on the roofing of Florence cathedral, the sculpture was rather located in a public garden in the exterior of Palazzo Della Sinoria. Because David was a very popular hero in Florence, after a short period, the statue began to signify the eagerness to set the Republic of Florentine free from all the threats, such as conflicting states from outside and domination of the Medici family from inside.
What caused a revival of portraiture in the fifteenth century?
Medieval art had the donors being represented in the wall paintings or altarpieces that they commissioned. In the 15th century, painters were portraying donors of such kind with unique characteristics, perhaps, learned during the lifetime.
Evaluate Donatello’s contribution to the sculpture of the fifteenth century
Donatello, an early Italian Renaissance sculptor, and artist from Frolence were partly popular because of his work in bas-relief (a superficial relief sculpture). On the other hand, Dantello contributed considerably to the perspective illusionism developments of the 15th century. His sculptures are assumed to be a supreme portrayal of the spirit of that era in design and character, and they had a great influence on other artists.
Contrast the work of Donatello and Verrocchio. How does each artist respond to the aesthetics of the Renaissance tradition?
Verrochio had not probably set an eye on Colleoni, and the sculpture did not stand for a man but rather had the idea of a ruthless and strong military man satisfied with titanic power and liveliness. This differs from Donatello’s sculpture at Padua, the condottiere identified as Gattamelata, its representation of calm and other feelings that Verrocchio’s tried to represent.
Assess the extent to which Alberti realized the principles of his theoretical writings in the architecture of specific buildings he designed.
Alberti’s actual structures are a little bit stricter about the ancient Roman design practice compared to other works before him. In his theoretical perspective of copying nature, his idea of a prince can be traced back to the early writings of humanists’ lovers of Plato like Saluti.
Krautheimer, Richard. Lorenzo Ghiberti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982. Print.
Schneider, Adams. Outlines and Highlights for Italian Renaissance. New York: Academic Internet Publishers, 2010. Print.
Shearman, John. Only Connect: Art and the Spectator in the Italian Renaissance. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1992. Print.