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Kinesiology: Control of Human Movement Research Paper


Kinesiology, as the science of human movement, incorporates all-inclusive health subjects, which uses the moderate art of muscle monitoring (biofeedback) to access information about a person’s wellbeing. Definitely, it ascertains the features that impede the body’s normal internal energies and access the life of improving prospective within a person (Getchell and Mikesky 56). Moreover, individuals perform various exercises to help control their movements.

According to Dounskaia (204), such exercises target to increase flexibility, increase endurance, increase strength, exercise prescription and specificity, as well as Motor teaching and motor learning. The control of human movement is a broad concept under kinesiology; it touches on physiology of exercise, neural basis of movement, psychology of movement, and biomechanics.

According to MedicinePlus, the process by which nerves, bones, and muscles coordinates to create slight, precise movements constitutes fine motor control. In the field of sports, the study of control of human movement is essential in providing students and scholars on the confines of human performance (Dounskaia 207). The coordination of the brain in organizing human movements is also a fundamental concept in sport science.

Exercise to Increase Flexibility

Flexibility is determined with the level of muscle stiffness or elasticity, which is referred to as pliability by the therapists. Certainly, inclusive fitness schemes should be integrated into flexibility exercises since this is relevant in developing and upholding the range of motion (ROM). These exercises help in stretching the major muscle groups. Therefore, an individual ought to perform them at least two days a week.

Indeed, there are relevant parameters for stretching protocols, which include intensity of stretching force, duration of stretch, as well as the frequency of stretch (Leonard 109). Notably, these parameters are used in prescription to increase flexibility. The best stretching ought to encompass suitable static, as well as dynamic practices. Some of the techniques involve slow elongation of muscle and holding it in stretched state for some time and dynamic techniques, which is slow, cyclical elongating, holding, and shortening of a muscle (Leonard 144).

Despite the existence of static and dynamic categories of muscle stretching, other types of muscle stretching are also in existence. , such as Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF), which involves the altering activation in a compressed muscle with reflexive protraction of the muscle. In addition, there is ballistic that involves repeated prancing movements, wherein tendon are swiftly elongated and instantly slackened.

Flexibility, as a key concept under control of human movement, has various advantages, some of which include an increase range of motion, improvements in joint function, enhancing muscle performance, preventing muscle injury, especially during eccentric exercise, and preventing other soft tissue injury as well as decreasing post-exercise soreness.

However, persistent stretching can increase a muscle’s resting length and decrease the amount of passive force that it develops at certain points in the range of motion of joints that the muscle crosses (Sternad 45).

Exercise to Increase Endurance

These workout instructions identify principles for three factors, namely, duration, frequency, and intensity. Specifically, the elements bring about a total workout impetus referred to as training volume. Besides, therapists give some specific prescription parameters, which are approved by the American College of Sports Medicine to ensure enhancement of endurance (Dounskaia 204).

For that reason, an individual should have them in consideration to be certain of the full achievement of this activity. The components of the activity include frequency of training, intensity of training, duration of training, as well as the mode of activity involved. First, frequency of training of an individual who aims at increasing endurance should range between three to five days a week. In addition, the trainee has a duty to ensure the intensity of his/her training is per the prescription of the therapist.

Explicitly, the maximum oxygen uptake reserve (VO2R) of between 50% and 85% is recommended. In retrospect, therapists regulate the workout potency by launching a work out heart rate at 65% to 90% of maximum heart rate (HRmax) or 50% to 85% of HRmax reserve (HRR) (Dounskaia 203). On the other hand, therapists recommend unfit individuals to have lower intensity exercise, which ranges between 55% to 64% of HRmax and 40% to 49% of HRR (Winter 84).

Besides, an individual has to consider the duration of training. Indeed, the period should range between twenty to sixty minutes of uninterrupted or recurrent activity contingent on its strength. In the process of exercise, however, some factors seek ardent consideration. For instance, an individual ought to perform lower-intensity exercise for at least thirty minutes per day while more intense for at least twenty minutes daily.

Likewise, less fit persons may well mount up workout bouts all through the day on condition that each bout continues for over ten minutes. Consequently, persons are highly likely to achieve overall fitness with workout spells of sensible strength and lengthier periods. Definitely, moderate magnitude workout is harmless and linked with healthier observance than more intense schemes.

As a final point, the mode of activities involves large muscle groups as well as rhythmical and aerobic. Some of the events include jogging, skating, cycling-bicycling, walking-hiking, and skiing. A prescribed schedule of stepwise increments in frequency, duration, and intensity gradually leads to a maintenance level of fitness, which is required in the field of sports (Sternad 53). Nonetheless, there is a special group such as those with hypertension. To these individuals, standard prevention parameters can apply.

That is to say, such individuals should ensure that they take in consideration both the primary and tertiary prevention strategies. In other words, primary prevention strategy involves the reduction of the rise in blood pressure that occurs over time in people at risk due to endurance exercise. Whereas the tertiary prevention is the type where endurance exercise produces ten millimeters reductions on average in systolic and diastolic blood pressure to people with mild essential hypertension, (140-180/90-105).

Definitely, endurance workout lowers blood glucose levels, and can as well increase insulin sensitivity for approximately three days (Dounskaia 206). At the same time, the exercises have to go hand in hand with a proper diet, thus touching on the nutrition field.

Importantly, endurance training has various benefits, including maintaining and improving cardiovascular functions, maximal VO2, cardiac output, and arteriovenous oxygen difference, as well as reducing the risk factors associated with coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and constipation (Dounskaia 205).

Besides, it improves health status and increases life expectancy of individuals who consider it worth implementing. It boosts health of bones and decreases osteoporosis risks, particularly in postmenopausal female. The exercise also enhances postural stability and minimizes falling risks as well as related cracks and injuries. Finally, it preserves cognitive function, alleviate symptoms of depression, and improve concepts of personal control and self-efficacy.

Exercise to Increase Strength

This activity is vital for ensuring that the magnitude and value of workout for expanding and sustaining cardiorespiratory and muscular aptness, and adjustability in healthy adults is attainable with ease. Consequently, there are certain prescription parameters in place that an individual ought to consider for the successful exercise. In addition, there is intensity of training, which requires the involvement of both the therapists and the trainee.

In other words, the therapists apply the theory of a repetition maximum (RM) to recommend the load that an individual is capable of lifting (Winter 50). In line with the training, several specialists endorse the aspect of between eight and twelve repetitions per set, though a lower repetition series with a weightier load for instance, between six and eight repetitions can even augment muscles’ power and resilience. Besides, there is the duration of training; one should at least have one set of exercise, which is between eight and ten. Finally, there is the mode of training; in this case, the ACSM recommends no specific mode of exercise (Goodheart and Frost 451).


Movements and interactions of joints help in improving quality of life through by promoting physical activities, preventing and managing injuries and chronic diseases, and general enhancement of health and performance.

Human movement is an imperative topic in the field of sports, as the course entails physical fitness. From another perspective, the study of sports offers insight into the perimeters of human performance. Exercise, physical and health education, elite sport, and nutrition are some of the crucial topics that have to touch on control of human movement.

Works Cited

Dounskaia, Natalia. “Control of Human Limb Movements: The Leading Joint Hypothesis and Its Practical Applications.” Exercise Sports Science Reviews 38.4 (2010): 201-208. Print.

Getchell, Bud, and Alan Mikesky. Physical Fitness: A Way of Life. 6th ed. Boston: CPG Publications, 2007. Print.

Goodheart, George, and Robert Frost. Applied Kinesiology, Revised Edition a Training Manual and Reference Book of Basic Principles and Practices. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic, 2014. Print.

Leonard, Charles. The Neuroscience of Human Movement. St. Louis: Mosby, 1998. Print.

Sternad, Dagmar. Progress in Motor Control: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. New York: Springer, 2009. Print.

Winter, David. Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement. 4th ed. New York: Wiley, 2009. Print.

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