There have made the case for the importance of people skills. But nowhere the discipline on which it is based is called “People Skills”. The term that is widely used to illustrate the discipline is Organisational behavior. Organizational behavior is a pasture of learning that explores the impact of groups and individuals as well as a structure that has on behavior inside the Organisations, to apply such awareness toward getting better an effectiveness of Organisation.
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This is a case study of a fancy restaurant named “La Maison” that stayed at Coogee. In which Diana Almers is an employee. Jean-Pierre Godot is the owner of this restaurant. The focusing point of this case study is to criticize the learning theory of Organisational behavior, identification of positive and negative reinforcements, punishment and extinction that used by Godot and the customers, discussion of the impact of reinforcements and punishment have on Diane’s behavior, and finally, trace out the concepts that would apply to the effectiveness of an organization.
Answer to question no-1
Learning is any comparatively eternal change in behavior that takes place by experience. Changes in behavior indicate that learning has taken place and that place and that learning is a behavior change. This definition has several components that deserve clarification.
First, learning involves change. Change may be good or bad from an Organisational point of view. People can learn unfavorable behaviors to hold prejudices or to avoid their liabilities, for example- as well as favorable behaviors.
Second, the change must become ingrained. Immediate changes may be only reflexive or as a result of fatigue or a sudden burst of energy and thus may not represent learning.
Third, some form of experience is necessary for learning. Experience may be acquired directly through observation or practice, or it may be acquired directly through observation or practice, or it may be acquired indirectly through reading. The crucial test remains- “Does this experience result in a comparatively eternal change in behavior? If the answer is yes then it can be said that learning has taken place.
The influence is central to the learning viewpoint. There have been found to determine the influence that will have on an individual-
- Attentional process: people learn only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical feature.
- Maintenance process: Employees’ power depends on how efficiently they can understand and keep in mind the information after a long time.
- Motor reproduction processes: this process exhibits that the person can execute the modeled actions.
- Reinforcement process: if optimistic inducement or rewards are provided by the company, persons would be more motivated to demonstrate the modeled behavior.
- “Learning is any comparatively eternal change in behavior which take places under experience.”- This statement of learning does not work in all practical fields.
- “Learning involves change”- this philosophy can not be applicable in all working sectors.
- “Some form of experience is required for learning”- this method is not essential because learning is the procedure to build people to gather experience.
- The all-time reinforcement procedure does not work. Several times it impacts negatively on employee’s performance as Diane’s case expressed here.
Answer to question no-2
Learning is part of the job and every moment employees should eager to learn from their organization and they must apply when the organization required his help. However, to develop the organisation manager will advise and teach them. When managers attempt to mold persons by guiding their learning in graduated steps, managers or owner of the company are shaping behaviour.
Consider the situation in which an employee’s behaviour is extensively different from that sought by management. If management rewarded the individual only when he or she demonstrated desirable responses, there might be very little reinforcement taking place. In such a case, shaping offers a logical approach toward achieving the desired behaviour.
On the other hand, managers design the behavior by methodically emphasizing each constructive step which advance the person closer to the preferred reaction. There are four ways in which to shape behaviour through
- Positive reinforcement- it can be defined as a reply with something or impressive pleasant. In this case, Diane felt fortunate to get the job in La Maison because the pay was $15.50 per hour, plus tips. The average dinner for two with wine ran about $150. Diane then decided that she would give it her to prove just how good she could be when Godot spoke about his vision for his restaurant and the importance of working as a team.
- Negative Reinforcement- It refers to the situation where a negative feedback come in to force by the termination or abandonment of impressive unpleasantness. Here, when the restaurant got crowded, and people got restless waiting for their dinners to be served, Godot would stomp into the kitchen and shout at the chief- “Hurry up! You are a lazy snail; my grandmother can cook faster than you!”
- Punishment- Punishment is always creates an unexpected situation since it try to remove an objectionable behavior. For example, one night Diane dropped a bowl of bouillabaisse appetizer on the carpet, she was very apologetic and hurried to get a sponge, but Godot shouted at her in rapid- fire French and told her that he would be deducting $24.95 from her pay, the price of the bouillabaisse and $20 for the cost of cleaning the stain in the rug.
- Extinction- Abolishing any reinforcement that is continuing behavior is described as extinction. At the same time, if the behavior is not resistant, it leans to be steadily extinguished. For instance, here given comprehension described that Godot essentially ignored Diane during her first several weeks on the job. She was a little relieved because she was surprised that he did not say anything to her. As far as she was doing a good job and she was averaging close to 20 percent in tips.
Both constructive and unenthusiastic support results in learning. They reinforce a reply and enhance the possibility of replication. Praise is desired because praise strengthens and enlarges the behavior of doing a good job. The behavior of “looking busy” is similarly strengthened and increased by its terminating the undesirable consequence. In shaping behavior, a critical issue is the timing of reinforcements.
Answer to question no-3
Positive reinforcement is an influential tool for modifying behavior. By identifying and rewarding performance enhancing behaviors, management increases the likelihood that they will be repeated. From the learning outcomes, it can be said that reinforcement is a more successful tool than punishment. Even though punishment removes unexpected behavior more rapidly than negative feedback does but punish behaviour leans o be only momentarily concealed rather than permanently altered.
Although the effectiveness of reinforcements in the form of rewards and punishments has a lot of support in the literature, that does not essentially mean that organisational behavior modification is the best way to reward people.
The power of reinforcements is not due to operant conditioning or behaviorism. One problem with behaviorism is research showing that judgment and feelings immediately follow environmental stimuli even those explicitly meant to shape behavior. This is contrary to the assumptions of behaviorism and organisational behavior modification, which assume that people’s innermost thoughts and feelings in response to the environment are irrelevant.
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Impact of reinforcements and punishment on Diane’s behavior
According to the given comprehension, Diane Almers employee of La Maison restaurant felt fortunate to get such a job- the pay was $15.50 per hour plus tips. Considering that the average dinner for two with wine ran about $150. She thought that she could make big money if she worked hard enough to earn 15 percent or more in tips.
Jean-Pierre Godot owner of La Maison hired Diane and he emphasized that he expected excellence from his staff. He also spoke about his vision for his restaurant and the importance of working as a team though he seemed dedicated and industrious but he was also prone to emotional outbursts. Godot essentially ignored Diane during her first several weeks on the job.
Diane was doing a good job and she was averaging close to 20 percent in tips. Customers complimented her on her efficient service. She had learned to balance several plates on her arms so she did not have to time making extra trips to the kitchen. She also knew that giving really good service meant doing a lot of little extras. She had a knack for recommending the right wines to compliment meals, tempted her customers into buying lavish desserts by describing them in serious detail and also remembered repeat customers and greeted them with “welcome back”.
But one night accidentally she dropped a bowl of bouillabaisse appetizer on the carpet. Though she was very apologetic and hurried to get a sponge but Godot punished her through deducting $24.95 from her pay as the price of the bouillabaisse and $20 for the cost of cleaning the stain in the rug. For this, Diane felt angry and confused.
After that consequence, she decided to slow down a little and not wanting to inspire another outburst from her boss. As a result she brought out no more than two dishes at a time and her tips went down to under 15 percent that was much less than her one night high of 23 percent. Godot still got irritated with her and the rest of his staff although she did not break anything. Impact of that night’s moment was that she really sick of his gripping, she slowed down considerably and unfortunately, this made her tips sag.
Answer to the question no 4
Effectiveness of hourly pay rates and tips as methods for reinforcing desired behaviours
The continuous strengthening schedules could show the way to early situation and beneath this schedule behaviour tends to rapidly deteriorate when reinforces are suspended. However, continuous reinforcers are appropriate for newly emitted, unstable, or low frequency responses. In this context, alternating reinforcers prevent the early situation reasoning that they do not go behind every response. Their initiatives are suitable for steady as well as high-frequency responses.
The Managers those who are the most effectual in their jobs should be promoted the fastest. Researchers looked at the issue of what managers do from a somewhat different perspective. To perform the most excellent job managers turn up the swiftest within the organisation. The effectiveness of hourly pay rates and tips as methods for reinforcing desired behaviors all managers should engage in following managerial activities-
- Conventional management performs decision-making, planning as well as controlling.
- Their activity also involved exchanging routine Communication and information as well as processing paperwork.
- Human resource management performs motivating, managing conflict and imprisoning as well as recruitment and training.
- Managerial activities also include socializing, networking politicking, as well as interact with outcasts.
The organizational behavior has apprehensive with the learning of what inhabitants perform within the organisation as well as how their behavior affect the organization’s performance. For the reason of organizational behavior is apprehensive particularly with the employment-related state of affairs. It positively emphasizes behavior that is related to apprehension and this is absenteeism, jobs, work, employment turnover, human resources performance as well as productivity including management. Organizational behavior also takes account of the central part of motivation, group structure, conflict, change processes, work propose, and work pressure.
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