Development among children is an issue of nature against nurture, that is, it depends on the environment as well as the hereditary factors the child gets from the parents. The genes are some of the heredity factors that affect the human development. Gotten from both parents, they define the physical features.
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The gene that a child gets from the parents depends on the most dominant gene among the parents. For example, if one of the parents had black hair and the other one brown, the child will take the hair colour of the parent with the dominant gene. Environmental factors also affect human physical development; the environmental climate the child is exposed to affects his/her growth. A parent who smokes and subjects the children to such pollutants is likely to have children who are poorly developed physically (Leo, 2006).
Cognitive development among children is focused on the brain development: the brain development among children is affected by many factors. Among them are the following: education is one of the physical factors that affect the cognitive development; qualities like the esteem and self-confidence of the children are developed through getting involved in other children and socializing with them (Leo, 2006).
The minds of the children are also stimulated through some activities like jigsaws and book reading to achieve a high level of development. The culture the child is subjected to also pose an effect on the way the brain develops. A child who is brought out in an environment where succeeding is given much of a priority will tend to develop a mindset that only strives to achieve.
Hereditary factors that are genetic also affect the way the child mind develops. In case a child is born with a chromosomal abnormalities like a mental illness, it is likely that it is going to affect him or her cognitive development. In the same way, the genes that a child gets from the parents also affects the way development of the mind. The most dominant genes that the child gets from one of the parents may define the way the child cognitive development will be.
Human development among children is affected by several factors. The trait theory of development has one of its reasoning of this effect. Family is one of the factors that affect the way a child develops morally, socially and the personality. The personalities of the parent and the style they use in parenting them have great effect on their development.
A shy parent is likely to have children that are shy. However, the personality may be affected in future by such factors as socializing with their peers once they grow up. In the same way an authoritative parent is likely to have children who are self-confident (Damon, 2006).
The environment has a great effect on our social, moral, and personal development. According to the humanistic theory of personality development, our development is determined the externalist. Our moral life is determined by things around us, as well as the choices we make.
The decisions we arrive at are a combination of how one is brought up and manipulation of the people around us (Damon, 2006). For example, a child gains the confidence to do activities in front of people due to the self-confidence instilled in him by the parents/guardians, and in school. To a child, this is the environment known to him, and continuous growth will expand the environment around him.
List of References
Damon W, R. M. (2006). Handbook of Child Psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
Leo, J. H. (1996). Child Development: Analysis and Synthesis. New York: Psychology Press.