All people differ in their way of thinking, character, temperament, emotionality, behavior, and point of view. These features form the personality of an individual and often complicate communication and understanding between human beings since it is difficult to comprehend how another person thinks. Studying personality development and its types helps to get along with difficult people, solve problems of misunderstanding, and be successful. The paper is aimed at scrutinizing the phenomenon of personality development, the tools for assessing personality, and also its theory, types, and impact.
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Personality Development: The Impact of Genetics (Nature) and External Influences/Development (Nurture)
One of the main issues of personality development is how much genetics and the environment of bringing an individual up influence the personality. Scientific work shows that partly the answer depends on a kind of studied personality aspects (Lecci, 2015). For example, neuroticism, to a certain extent, is impacted by the genetic element, while creativity and openness to new things are formed by environmental effects. Temperament, as one of the characteristics of personality, is genetically predisposed from birth. The properties of temperament are the most stable and constant in comparison with other mental features. Their physiological basis is the genetically determined characteristics of the central nervous system (Lecci, 2015). Thereby, the influence of the environment on temperament is minimal; a person can only control a reaction and behavior in various situations.
Genetics also determines, to some extent, the level of intelligence and several personality traits, such as self-confidence, anxiety, friendliness, and consciousness (Lecci, 2015). On the other hand, the formation of character is strongly influenced by the environment in which the person is brought up. The methods of parenting, cultural values, education, and the circle of communicating define the person’s way of expressing thoughts, one’s behavior, cultural and religious views, and attitude to other people (Lecci, 2015). However, there is a tendency not to oppose genetics and the environment, since both the nature of an individual and his or her upbringing environment make a significant contribution to personality development. Psychology of personality explains that it is important to consider the circumstances in which nature and upbringing influence personality formation.
Using the Personality Theory as a Vehicle for Career Advancement
Numerous attempts to systematize knowledge of personality have led to the creation of a personality theory, which uses psychology tools to make theoretical models allowing a better understanding of development, thinking, and behavior processes. We do not always treat people as necessary because we do not know what exactly they want. Misunderstandings leading to distrust, disrespect, and conflicts appear due to differences in our personality types. According to Lerner (2013), four specimens of personality can be located; these are the Playful, the Peaceful, the Powerful, and the Premises.
Playfuls are enthusiastic extroverts and innovators in business; in communication, they need approval and attention. Powerfuls are productive, hardworking, and persistent people who wish loyalty and respect. Precises are organized perfect workers who do not make mistakes and want space and quiet. Peacefuls are easy-going and patient individuals avoiding conflicts and looking for harmony (Lerner, 2013). Knowing these personality types can help to make an impressive career advancement – to hire prospective employees, distribute responsibilities, and get along with a boss and colleagues.
Understanding personality theory gives a huge advantage not only in career development but also in choosing a future profession. It can help a person reduce the area of the job search, identify strengths and weaknesses, and opt for the right environment. For example, individuals with leadership qualities may occupy managing positions. Creativity and flexibility help succeed in challenging assignments, while the analytical mindset organizes and structures a company’s work. Sociability and eloquence may give new acquaintances and promotion (Stahl, 2017). It is necessary to analyze personal qualities and competently implement them in professional development.
Four Techniques for Identifying and Analyzing Personality
There are several different measures that are used to assess personality. These tools include interviews, inventories for producing reports concerning personal progress, a variety of tests, as well as measurements based on the Likert scale and the use of checklists (Lecci, 2015). Structured interviews (SCID tests) are the questions that an interviewer asks subjects to get a diagnostic tool matching the DSM’s unique structure. Some of these interviews are to evaluate personal character traits, and others determine the type of personality disorder. Objective tests are personality assessment tools that consist of many scales, are estimated on a computer, and assess personality disorder and psychopathology (Lecci, 2015). The most famous and most effective of these tests are Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 based on true-false questions, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III incorporating personality scales, the Personality Assessment Inventory containing 344 items, and others (Lecci, 2015).
Among the most famous projective tests, the ones that get most mentioning are the Rorschach test based on image perception, the Thematic Apperception Test for defining one’s cognitive issues, and the sentence completion exercise (Lecci, 2015). The Rorschach Inkblot Method consists of 10 gray, black, and color cards with inkblots. Subjects should say what an inkblot reminds them and explain their answer. The Thematic Apperception Test includes a series of pictures portraying ambiguous situations, which should be discussed by subjects. The purpose is to determine personal deviations in the perception of the displayed images. Rating scales, as well as other test types such as checklists typically come in the form of questions to check or to indicate the degree of agreement to an item. Widely applied rating scales are the Psychopathy Checklist, which is expected to define the extent of a participant’s empathy and the presence of erratic behavior, and the Positive Affect/Negative Affect Schedule (Lecci, 2015). These personality assessment tools are widespread in many fields of society and are used to determine personality types, detect psychological disorders, and employ staff. Computer programs and effective statistical methods make it possible to obtain reliable results of personality verification.
Personality Developmental Journey
Personality development occurs throughout people’s lives, but the psychological characteristics change intensely in childhood and adolescence (Lecci, 2015). Although some aspects of personality are inherent in an individual from birth (for example, temperament), the environment and upbringing are paramount in personality development. My developmental journey confirms this statement: a person receives moral and ethical components forming the character in family and immediate environment. The behavior of parents directly affects the way children communicate with peers and socialize. Initial assumptions about personality development clarify my experience of misunderstandings – the disagreements were the result of ignorance of personality types. Currently, I know how to use the gained knowledge in communication and career properly.
In the scientific field, personality represents a theoretical construct of behaving, thinking, and feeling patterns created to help people understand individual differences. Personal development reflects all changes in the characteristics of an individual as a result of internal processes and external influences. Each person has a unique set of qualities – character, temperament, mentality, emotionality, and way of thinking and perceiving information – that determine one’s personality. The theory of personality analyzes and systematizes the data to understand the behavior of people and the possibility of applying the acquired knowledge in practice.
Lecci, L. B. (2015). Personality. Web.
Lerner, H. (2013). Become successful by understanding people’s personalities. Forbes. Web.
Stahl, A. (2017). 3 Ways knowing your personality type can help you with your career. Forbes. Web.