Limitations of the preoperational stage
This theory focuses on children’s disability rather than ability. It assumes that a child’s thinking is rigid and shaped by how things are presented or appear (Brown 253). It fails to address how things remain the same when other outward features are altered. Therefore, it suffers from the conservation of objects.
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The video clip explains the cognitive limitation of conservation that distorts the learning of a child. Children are subjected to tests to measure whether they can conserve objects when changed from one place to another without losing their original sense.
Limitations of concrete operational stage
Research indicates that while children make considerable success they register limitations of abstract reasoning (Brown 253).
Describe which parenting style is most likely to employ the methods described in the articles?
Parents in this situation would most likely select the authoritative parenting style to manage children because they are left to make their own choices under a guided framework.
Why would a parent from this parenting style choose and employ these strategies with their children?
The authoritative parenting style is appropriate because it revolves around character development through appreciating every good thing done by a child. Parents set rules for the children and motivate them to emulate to become responsible, well behaved, and hardworking.
Effects of parenting style on a child’s self-esteem
According to research, parenting styles affect a child’s intelligence, development, confidence, and approach to life (Baumrind, 62). Authoritative parents allow their children to exploit their full potential, set standards, and give them limits. They also monitor children closely and give them support when they commit mistakes. This makes the child’s self-esteem develop and become their guard.
Erikson’s two-Stage development process
The first two-stage development process during childhood takes place at the age of five years. The child undergoes the initiative vs. guilt stage where the child starts to play with others and becomes assertive. Parents control how the children make plans by assisting them in making decisions to become self-initiative. Also, at this stage, the child becomes very inquisitive and if ignored the Childs ability to interact becomes poor and he or she feels guilty. When properly handled, the child develops a sense of purpose for life.
The industry vs. inferiority development stage starts when the child is ten years. The child starts the learning process at this stage where he demonstrates his competencies, becomes industrious and confident. When restricted, the child becomes inferior and lacks the courage to show his competencies. This stage leads to developing competitive ability.
The last stage in the two-stage development is the identity vs. role confusion stage which happens at the age of above thirteen years where children change and assume the role of adults. Adolescents shape up the child physically to realize their role in the family (Katherine, 124). The stage helps children to be committed; they become good decision-makers.
The sociological theory asserts that an individual’s personality is a higher order that can only be understood by examining the social environment where an individual’s life was developed. Interaction of cognitive and communicative functions is enabled through nurturing and scaffolding.
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It is the act of knowing, comprehending, analyzing, and assessing situations. In this case, students apply their cognitive processes to comprehend the world around them to obtain meaning through reasoning, making valuable inferences, and creating relationships (Shaffer, 78). During my childhood, I engaged in creative skills like solving simple problems and constructing structures from simple objects. This required application of relational skills.
The zone of proximal development
It refers to the difference between what students can do without help and what they can perform with the teachers’ help. For instance, my experiences as a child conform to this concept. Sometimes I remember secluding myself from my guides to find out what I would accomplish alone.
Private speech refers to a form of communication spoken to oneself loudly. It is usually common among children at the age of 7 years. As a child, I spoke out to my self hoping to discover skills to shape my behavior. This came in, especially when I figured out what I would be able to do myself from learning without necessarily being taught.
Exploring the topic of learning disabilities in childhood
A learning disability is a disorder that negatively affects acquisition, organization of learning information, retention, comprehension, and a child’s ability to communicate effectively. Research has shown that learning disabilities occur and are caused by one or more impairments that affect thinking, perception, memory, and learning abilities.
Causes of learning disabilities include genetic, neurological factors and any form of injury that affects the functioning of an individual’s brain (Jennings, 54). Visual processing disorder is an example of a learning disability disorder. Children with this disorder have problems in reading and interpreting maps, images, and pictures.
Baumrind, Diana. Effects of Authoritative Parental Control on Child Behavior, Child Development. New York, 2000.print.
Brown, Etta. Learning Disabilities: Understanding the Problem and Managing the Challenge. New York: Hillcrest Publishing Group, 2009. Print.
Jenningh. Concrete operational stage-deductive reasoning.You Tube. 10 Feb. 2007. Web. 22 Jun. 2012. Print.
Shaffer, David R, and Katherine Kipp. Developmental Psychology: Childhood and Adolescence. New York: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.