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Literature Overview on HRD Models Essay

Providing Evidence for Approving Humanistic and Normative Approach to Management

According to Senge (2006), a humanistic approach to managing organizations creates a potential for building a healthier atmosphere in the employed environment. In particular, the scientist believes that a person-oriented approach is specifically important because it constitute the basis of a learning organization and contributes to enhancing the company’s competitive advantage, leadership, and performance (McKenzie and Taylor, 2001).

What is more important is that learning organization has the right to existence in case people in such organizations are able to expand and develop their skills and capacities as well as create the results they truly wish to achieve (Senge, 2006, p. 146). All these attributes are included into the Theory Y presented earlier.

According to Zastrow and Ashman (2009), “Theory Y managers view employees as wanting to grow and develop by exerting physical and mental effort to accomplish work objectives to which they are committed” (p. 540). This is why internal rewards, including personal involvement and self-respect are indispensible components of staff motivation.

Literature Supporting the Critique of the Two Identified Models

Geren (n. d.) states that Chinese managers also apply to Theory Y model, but for different purposes. So far, Chinese organization seek to satisfy the lower needs of workers and employees where higher needs were destined for the member from the upper class. Today, theory Y model has been re-evaluated their previously presented rationales and accept the model as a method for encouraging employees in cultural and economical terms (Geren, n. d., p. 3)

. Michigan is also applicable to Chinese culture, because it focuses more on standardization and technological development in order to increase performance and achieve strategic goals (Kandula, 2004, p. 4). What is more important is that the presented model provide a solid ground for creating more democratic relations in the working setting. Therefore, cultural diversity aspect becomes more appreciated by the employers so that they become value their employers to a greater extent.

Reflection on Potential Use of Emerging Technologies in HRD

The Global Trading Model and integration models are the most frequent approaches that are used by Chinese companies (Marquardt, Berger, and Loan, 2004). This potential use of emerging technologies is predetermined by the growing tendencies of applying to a normative model of organizational and human resources management.

According to this model, employees can be motivated much more effectively because the introduction of technological devices makes them constantly improve their skills and capacities. In addition, due to the fact that technological advancement is closely connected with the globalization process, the diversity process also becomes on the agenda along with the presented theory.

The brightest example of the interaction between learning organization and technology advancement is presented by Air China and China Construction Bank. Both examples show that shifts in leadership management aimed at achieving cultural contingency. In particular, the introduction of better equipment and effective technological tools contributes to simplifying the production process and increasing the organizational performance. Less pressure is made, therefore, on employees whose self-respect remains unchanged.


Geren B. (n. d.) Motivation: Chinese Theoretical Perspectives. Journal of Behavioral Studies in Business.

Kandula, S. R. (2004) Human Resource Management in Practice: With 300 Models, Techniques and Tools. US: PHI Learning.

McKenzie, J. S. and Taylor, W. J. (2001) Opportunities in human resource management careers. US: McGraw-Hill Professional.

Senge, P. M. (2006) The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. US: Doubleday.

Zastrow, C., and Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2009) Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment. US: Cengage Learning.

Marquardt M., Berger N., and Loan P. (2004) HRD in the age of globalization: a practical guide to workplace learning in the third millennium. London Basic Books.

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Y., A. (2019, January 7). Literature Overview on HRD Models [Blog post]. Retrieved from

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Y., Angelina. "Literature Overview on HRD Models." IvyPanda, 7 Jan. 2019,

1. Angelina Y. "Literature Overview on HRD Models." IvyPanda (blog), January 7, 2019.


Y., Angelina. "Literature Overview on HRD Models." IvyPanda (blog), January 7, 2019.


Y., Angelina. 2019. "Literature Overview on HRD Models." IvyPanda (blog), January 7, 2019.


Y., A. (2019) 'Literature Overview on HRD Models'. IvyPanda, 7 January.

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