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This lesson will help second-grade students see the connections between mathematical operations such as addition or subtraction and measurement activities that are important for various sciences. Overall, it is necessary to achieve the following objectives:
- Students will learn to identify the position of an object relative to other objects. In particular, they will determine the distance between small cars.
- They will learn to identify the position of an object by using two mathematical operations, addition and subtraction.
- Learners will train to use measurement units.
In part, these goals are based on the standards identified by the National Science Teachers Association, according to which teachers should encourage students to use the skills derived from various areas, especially algebra and geometry (1). Additionally, one should focus on the strategies identified by the National Association for the Education of Young Children; this organization emphasizes the idea that teachers should use various toys or other manipulatives to help children understand the motion of objects and their positions relative to one another (National Association for the Education of Young Children 13).
The students will need to use the following materials 1) worksheets; 2) rulers; 3) posters depicting the movement of cars; and 4) small cars that will be regarded as moving objects.
While providing instructions, I will make accommodations for learners who have different learning styles. In particular, I will rely on charts depicting the movement of vehicles. Furthermore, I will encourage students to manipulate small cars because this manipulation is useful for people who can benefit from motor learning. Moreover, much attention will be paid to the needs of learners who may struggle with some disabilities such as visual impairments. In particular, these learners will be seated right near the teacher.
At first, I will introduce various units of measurement such as meters, decimeters, and centimeters. Moreover, students will learn to measure the distance between objects such as cars. In turn, students will need to perform several tasks. At first, they will need to determine the total distance covered by an object through a series of moves in the same direction. They will do an addition to perform this task. Additionally, they will determine the distance between two objects that can move in the same or opposite directions. They will do subtraction to complete such tasks. Additionally, learners will use rulers to see that measurements confirm the results of their calculations.
During this lesson, learners will be engaged in several science processes. In particular, they will observe the direct movement of objects. Moreover, they will use rulers to measure distances between small cars. Additionally, they will test a hypothesis according to which one can determine the distance between objects by using subtraction. It should be mentioned that teachers help learners see that distance between objects can be identified by certain mathematical operations (Humphreys 31; Maden 63).
In this case, the main manipulatives will be rulers and small cars. One should keep in mind that children can better understand or visualize the movement of an object or the distance between objects if they can use cars or other toys (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics 3). Apart from that, in this way, children can see that the connection between physical concepts such as the movement of an object and mathematical notions.
Informal and formal assessments
I will carry out an informal assessment by talking to students. In particular, I will ask them to explain their reasoning when they need to determine the distance between objects or the total distance covered by a small car. In turn, I will do a formal assessment by asking learners to complete various written tasks that require a student to determine the distance between objects.
Formative, summative, and authentic assessments
At the initial stages, I will focus on the formative assessment. In particular, I will pay attention to the mistakes that students can make. For instance, they can make computational errors while adding or subtracting. However, it is critical to identify conceptual errors like the wrong order of mathematical operations. The analysis of these mistakes can help me improve my instructional strategies. Moreover, the students will complete the formative assessment by doing the test with multiple-choice questions. Finally, it is necessary to undertake an authentic assessment. In particular, it will be necessary to construct a case study in which one has to calculate the distances between objects. Overall, this authentic assessment should prompt children to identify the connections between new knowledge and real-life problems (Luongo-Orlando 10).
Humphreys, Cathy. Making Number Talks Matter: Developing Mathematical Practices and Deepening Understanding. New York: Stenhouse Publishers, 2015. Print.
Luongo-Orlando, Katherine. Authentic Assessment: Designing Performance-based Tasks, New York: Pembroke Publishers Limited, 2009. Print.
Maden, Sabena. First Grade Fun, Fitness & Learning, Grade 1, New York, NY: Carson-Dellosa Publishing.
National Association for the Education of Young Children. “Science in the Yearly Years” NAEYC. 2009. Web.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. “Executive Summary: Principles and Standards for School Mathematics.” NCTM. 2012. Web.
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National Science Teachers Association. “2012 NSTA Preservice Science Standards.” NSTA. 2012. Web.