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Transnational Organized Crime Research Paper


Introduction

Transnational organized crime is a big business in the current international system. It takes place when individuals engage in the sale of goods without acquiring necessary documentation. This affects the operations of the state because individuals conduct business without paying taxes to the state. For instance, they import goods that are of low quality, which offer unnecessary competition to local industries.

Billions of dollars are generated each year through illegal trade yet such money is never captured in the GDP. In fact, studies show that organized crime has the capability of destabilizing countries and even regions if preventive measures are not put in place1.

Development is usually affected when groups engage in illegal business that cannot be included in calculating the country’s economic growth. Studies show that transnational organized criminals tend to interfere with local peace and stability because they fund local terrorist groups, as well as other criminals. This leads to augmented rates of bribery, extortion, clamoring, and organized bloodshed.

Since transnational organized crime results to violence, it would be difficult for investors to operate in major cities. Studies show that organized crime affects both developing and developed countries. Money laundering affects the banking system globally because it takes place through financial institutions. Many people are victims of identity theft in the current international system mainly because of transnational organized crime.

Women and children are kidnapped to be exploited sexually whereby they are recruited as prostitutes while young children are forced to beg in the streets. Carjacking is on the increase because of the availability of markets abroad. The health of individuals is also at risk because substandard medicine has gotten its way into the market through transnational organized crime.

It is approximated that each country suffers from the problem of counterfeit goods, which are produced and distributed with the help of transnational organized criminals2. This hurts the investors who engage in legal business, as well as the government because it cannot collect taxes.

This article explores the effects of transnational organized crime to economies of many countries in the world. The paper conducts a brief literature review by analyzing two articles that are related to the topic. In the subsequent section, the paper suggests a method that would be utilized in understanding the effects of organized crime on the economic policies of states.

The paper utilizes a quantitative data collection method. The major data collection instrument would be the questionnaire, which will be delivered to the sample population on-line. Finally, the paper suggests a data analysis method whereby the research hypothesis would either be rejected or upheld.

Problem Statement

Transnational organized crime is responsible for the increased public spending, particularly in security and policing because such crimes demand advanced technological skills and equipment. This is perceived to undermine the human rights standards, which are always the core of any particular state in the world.

Many states struggle to preserve sovereignty, but transnational criminals tend to interfere with this because they force the state to liaise or even sign agreements with other non-state actors in an effort to end organized crime3.

Kidnapping and extortion are the two major forms of organized crimes, which the actors in the international system are trying to provide solutions4. Pirates operating in the Indian Ocean have always interfered with the peace and the economy of many states around the region because goods do not reach their destination in time.

Due to terrorism, tourists shy away because they feel their lives would be in danger. It is upon the state to design strict policies that would stamp out organized crime. This would be facilitated through foreign cooperation5.

Sampling

The study will obtain its sample from the governmental policy makers in three states perceived to be worse hit by terrorism. Those sampled would be 102 foreign policy decision makers. A sample of approximately fifty individuals, both male and female would be recruited for this study.

To recruit foreign policy makers with adequate knowledge of transnational organizations, the researcher would obtain membership information from embassies and diplomatic missions of the states based in the country that the researcher would be conducted6.

The eligibility criteria would include individuals who are over have an experience of over eight years, they should be English speakers, their countries ought to be affected by transnational organizations, and they should not be currently engaged policies aimed at reducing the effect of transnational organizations on their economies. The participants would be recruited through a process of practical mail.

Therefore, a convenience sampling technique would be the most applicable sampling method since the participation in the study would be voluntarily. After completion of the baseline assessment, participants would be assigned to a group that demonstrates very frequent effects of transnational organizations, frequent effects, and frequent underperformance, as indicated by the economic performance indicators.

Instrument Used: Questionnaire

There would be one major method to be used in gathering information in this paper. This would be through a questionaire, which will be delivered electronically to the sample population. The questionaire will seek to capture various actions of the sample population regarding their opinions on effects of transnational organizations on the economy. The questionnaire will have four parts.

The first part will seek to capture the background information of respondents. The second part will deal with the demography and gender of the respondents. This will be to ascertain the prevalence of views in varoius categories in order to ensure that if any differences will come about then they would be captured in their demographic space.

The third part will deal with academic credentials and work experience of the respondents. The motivation for this section came from the understanding that different sections of the population respond differently to issues, based on age and academic status. The fourth part will delve into the specific issues related to the perception of the state officials on the effects of transnational organizations on the country’s economy.

The questionaire will also employ a mix of open and closed ended questions to capture different aspects of issues studied. Open ended questions will be used because they give respondents more time to figure out their opinions, which would make them volunteer more information related to feelings, outlooks and comprehension of the subject.

Validity

The validity of a measurement instrument can be measured by the degree to which the instrument measures accurately what it is supposed to measure In this survey, content validity was measured where the representativeness or sampling adequacy of the content of the measurement instrument was checked with the help of experts in the field.

In this study, the validity of the instruments was preserved ensuring the accuracy of the measurement where each variable’s indicators were extracted solely from the literature of the work of previous researchers in well-established papers.

Data Analysis

Data analysis refers to the process of transforming raw data into refined useful information that can be of use to people. Before settling on a method of data analysis, it is important that a clear data analysis approach be developed. The research can take quantitative, qualitative, or categorical approach. This research took a quantitative approach.

Depending on the type and accuracy needed, data analysis can take a simple descriptive form or a more complex statistical inference. The technique used in the analysis can be univariate analysis, bivariate analysis or multivariate analysis. In selecting the appropriate method, a researcher should ensure that assumptions relating to the method are satisfied7.

In analyzing the collected data, the researcher will use appropriate statistical data analysis tools such as descriptive and inferential statistics in analyzing quantitative data. In relation to the quantitative analysis, the most commonly used sets of statistics include mean, frequencies, standard deviation, median, and percentages.

The researcher will code and enter the quantitative data into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20). Using SPSS, the researcher will use cross tabulation to present the information. The tabulation would help give a clear picture of the impact of drug abuse on the psychological health of an individual.

The researcher will also use descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, percentage, and frequencies to describe the properties of the target population. Further, the researcher will use tables, figures, and charts to present the findings of the study. Because the research entails determination of the impact of drug abuse on the emotional wellbeing, there will be some form of comparison.

The comparison will be done on how depression changes the attitudes of individuals. Correlation analysis would be important to make this a success. Therefore, chi-square tests will be used to test the hypotheses. Inferential statistics like chi-square tests help to test whether the observed relationships between the variables are genuine.

The statistical significance level used in the research is 0.05 indicating whether the observed association occurred by chance in 5 out of 100 results. Chi-square is the most widely used measure of association in social science research, being suitable for use on nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio data.

Bibliography

Enemark, Christian. “Farewell to WMD: The Language and Science of Mass Destruction.” Contemporary Security Policy 32.2 (2011): 382-400.

Hakim, Catherine. Research Design: Successful Designs for Social and Economic Research. London: Routledge, 2000.

Hoffman, Esther. Postgraduate research guidelines. Vanderbijlpark: Vaal Triangle Technikon, 2001.

Holsti, Kalevi. Peace and War: Armed Conflicts and International Order 1648-1989. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Huntington, Samuel. “The Clash of Civilizations.” Foreign Affairs 72.2 (1993): 112-167.

Mearsheimer, John. “Back to the Future: Instability in Europe after the Cold War.” International Security 15.1 (1990): 37-89.

Morgan, Matthew. “The Origins of the New Terrorism”. Parameters: US Army War College Quarterly 34.1 (2004):29–43.

Steigerwald, David. “The Reclamation of Woodrow Wilson.” Diplomatic History 23.1 (1999): 79-99.

Williams, Phil. “Transnational Criminal Organizations: Strategic Alliances.” The Washington Quarterly 18.1 (1995): 57-72.

Footnotes

1 Kal Holsti, Peace and War: Armed Conflicts and International Order 1648-1989 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 67.

2 Christian Enemark, “Farewell to WMD: The Language and Science of Mass Destruction,” Contemporary Security Policy 32.2 (2011):390.

3Morgan, Matthew. “The Origins of the New Terrorism”, Parameters: US Army War College Quarterly 341 (2004), 43.

4David Steigerwald, “The Reclamation of Woodrow Wilson,” Diplomatic History, 23.1 (1999): 88.

5Phil Williams, “Transnational Criminal Organizations: Strategic Alliances,” The Washington Quarterly 18.1 (1995), 70.

6 Catherine Hakim, Research Design: Successful Designs for Social and Economic Research (London: Routledge, 2000), 12.

7 Hoffman, Esther. Postgraduate research guidelines. Vanderbijlpark: Vaal Triangle Technikon, 2001.

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IvyPanda. (2020, January 16). Transnational Organized Crime. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/organized-crime-2/

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"Transnational Organized Crime." IvyPanda, 16 Jan. 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/organized-crime-2/.

1. IvyPanda. "Transnational Organized Crime." January 16, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/organized-crime-2/.


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IvyPanda. "Transnational Organized Crime." January 16, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/organized-crime-2/.

References

IvyPanda. 2020. "Transnational Organized Crime." January 16, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/organized-crime-2/.

References

IvyPanda. (2020) 'Transnational Organized Crime'. 16 January.

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