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Osteoarthritis Disease and Its Risk Factors Annotated Bibliography

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Updated: May 1st, 2022

Felson, D. T. et al. (2000). Osteoarthritis: new insights. Ann Intern Med, 133(8), 635-646.

The article by Felson and colleagues (2000) is the first of two summaries of a conference on osteoarthritis disease and its risk factors organized by the National Institutes of Health. The main focus of the article is to provide a better understanding of osteoarthritis, along with the associated risk factors. The authors note that osteoarthritis is the leading form of arthritis among adults above the age of 30 years in the United States. Felson et al. (2000) further note that with the increase in the number of baby boomers, the prevalence of osteoarthritis is expected to grow further. They have also noted a correlation between age and osteoarthritis, and that sex-specific differences also tend to be quite evident. Symptoms and pathology are two of the leading criteria for defining osteoarthritis by the authors.

The authors have further examined the relationship between hormonal status and bone density in postmenopausal women, suggesting that an estrogen deficiency is crucial in the development of the disease. Felson et al. (2000) have also examined the nutritional factors that may cause osteoarthritis, including persistent exposure to oxidants. On the other hand, a high dietary intake of micronutrient antioxidants is thought to prevent the development of osteoarthritis.

The authors also note that genetic factors are responsible for nearly 50 % of osteoarthritis of the hips, hands, and knees. Local biochemical factors such as obesity, sports participation, joint deformity, muscle weakness, occupational factors, and acute joint injury have all been noted to play a crucial role in the causations of osteoarthritis.

Felson et al. (2000) suggest that dealing with or preventing the onset of osteoarthritis through lifestyle changes can play a crucial role in preventing many clinical problems associated with musculoskeletal disability. The article is useful in not only helping to shed light on the cause and risk factors of osteoarthritis but also in providing suggestions on how to delay or prevent the disease.

Giles, W., & Klippel, J. H. (2010). A National Public Health Agenda for Osteoarthritis. Web.

In this article published by the Center for Disease Control (CDC), Giles and Klippel (2010) explore osteoarthritis, terming it as the most common form of arthritis in the United States. The authors also note that osteoarthritis places a severe limit on the quality of life and daily activities of more than 27 million Americans. They further note that osteoarthritis mainly affects knees, hips, and hands, resulting in disability, weakness, and affects work productivity as well. Osteoarthritis generates socioeconomic costs as well, such as in joint replacement. Moreover, Giles and Klippel (2010) note that the increased cases of obesity among an aging U.S. population will lead to a dramatic increase in the prevalence, economic consequences, and health impact of osteoarthritis.

Based on the foregoing arguments, the authors contend that there is a need to take bold and innovative action to minimize the burden of osteoarthritis. As such, the article is a platform for a focused and collaborative initiative aimed at providing evidence-based intervention strategies, creating communicative initiatives, supportive policies, and strategic alliances to prevent and manage osteoarthritis, as well as facilitating research for a better understanding of the condition. Towards this end, the authors have provided valuable recommendations that need to be adopted to ensure the achievement of these strategies. First, there is a need for self-management education for osteoarthritis patients. There is also the need to promote physical exercise at the community level.

In addition, the authors argue that existing interventions and policies capable of reducing osteoarthritis-related injuries ought to be implemented, enforced, and promoted. Finally, Giles and Klippel (2010) recommend that weight management ought to be promoted as a preventive and treatment strategy for osteoarthritis. This is a useful publication that not only explores the disease burden of osteoarthritis but also provides useful suggestions on how to manage it.

Brandt, K. D. (2010). Diagnosis and nonsurgical management of osteoarthritis. New York: Professional Communicator Inc.

In this book, Brandt (2010) has provided an authoritative view on osteoarthritis, with the main focus on its practical aspects. In defining osteoarthritis, Brandt stresses that it is one among several overlapping distinct diseases with various causes but similar morphological, biological, and clinical outcomes. In his definition of osteoarthritis, Brandt stresses the articular cartilage. The book’s chapter on the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis helps to shed light on the shift from cartilage to bone. The author has noted the crucial role of radiography in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis.

In addition, Brandt has explored several pitfalls that normally accompany the diagnosis of osteoarthritides, such as the misinterpretation of laboratory tests and the radiograph. Brandt has also devoted several chapters of the book to exploring the non-surgical treatment of osteoarthritis. For example, he has dwelt at length on NSAIDs that inhibit COX-2. Other non-surgical treatments that the author has explored include capsaicin cream and rubefacients. He does not hide his optimism in the treatment of osteoarthritis using injection with steroids, although he is a bit skeptical about the use of hyaluronic acid injections in treating knee osteoarthritis.

Brandt has provided a lot of practical information in his book, perhaps because the book is mainly meant for primary care physicians. On the other hand, most parts of the discussion are meant for such specialists as arthritis health professionals and orthopedic surgeons.

The book is both useful and informative because it provides detailed information on the epidemiology, pathology, and clinical features of osteoarthritis. In addition, it has also provided some of the pitfalls that normally accompany the diagnosis.

Gilkeson, G. (Producer). & Austin. L. (Presenter). (2012). Osteoarthritis: an overview. [Podcast]. South Carolina: Medical University of South Carolina. Web.

In this podcast, Gilkeson and Austin (2011) begin by defining the disease. In this case, Gilkeson defines osteoarthritis as a disease of the joint that occurs when the cartilage of the bone has worn out. Gilkeson also contends that immune reactivity and inflammation may also be involved in the development of osteoarthritis. He further notes that the prevalence of the condition increases with age. Genetics also plays a part in the development of the disease, and repetitive trauma such as that involved in sports may eventually cause early onset of osteoarthritis. Gilkeson opines that there is no documented association between long-distance running and osteoarthritis, possibly because such runners tend to be lighter in weight. As such, an increase in weight is a risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis.

Maintaining a normal healthy diet will go a long way to preventing osteoarthritis, although studies do not show any link between the taking of supplements and prevention of osteoarthritis. Gilkeson argues that losing weight, and exercising can prevent the disease which if not taken care of may become a crippling problem necessitating knee, joint or hip replacement. In terms of treatment, Gilkeson notes that nodular osteoarthritis can be treated using steroid injection, while knee osteoarthritis can be treated using highly ironic acid injection.

Reference List

Brandt, K. D. (2010). Diagnosis and nonsurgical management of osteoarthritis. New York: Professional Communicator Inc.

Felson, D. T. et al. (2000). Osteoarthritis: new insights. Ann Inter Med, 133(8), 635-646.

Giles, W., & Klippel, J. H. (2010). A National Public Health Agenda for Osteoarthritis. Web.

Gilkeson, G. (Producer). & Austin. L. (Presenter). (2012). Osteoarthritis: an overview. [Podcast]. South Carolina: Medical University of South Carolina. Web.

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