This project management report provides an analysis of the Ottawa ICT project. Concisely, it explicates the implementation of the project by mentioning various success factors that determined its progress. It also highlights the challenges that hindered its execution. At the outset, the report explores the financial progress of the various issues concerning the management of the project’s resources. In addition, it presents the mechanism of the flow of funds in the realisation of the ICT development objectives. This section explains the mandate of the FINSENY Company to monitor the project’s progress in an attempt to ensure that the financial resources are utilised efficiently. Besides, it describes the financial risk assessment carried out each month to devise appropriate measures for curbing potential uncertainties that can hinder the progress of the project.
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It is cleared indicated that the risk assessment is based on existing factors such as staffing procedures and information systems among others. Besides, the report provides an insight into the change management practices that were put in place to ensure the successful implementation of the Ottawa ICT project. It indicates that change management was facilitated through the sharing of the project’s purpose, strong leadership values, employee engagement, and ensuring valuable connections among other actions. The second part of the project report presents the scope of the project. The list of the main requirements of the project is explored besides presenting a work breakdown structure (WBS). Stakeholder inclusion and the establishment of project teams are seen as crucial elements that determine the accomplishment of the change process. Lastly, the report provides a project summary that explores the performance and closure of the ICT activities in the region.
Based in Canada’s Ottawa Region, the FINSENY Company was awarded with one of the eight ICT projects that were meant for the accomplishment of Stage 1 of the European Union Commission’s Future Internet Public Private Partnership (FI-PPP) Initiative. The project management report provided in this report comprises two sections. The first section provides analysis of the financial and change management. It also explores the management of the relationships that were formed in the implementation process of the project. Section 2 provides information on the overall activities that were undertaken in the implementation of the project. Various activities that were designed towards the accomplishment of the project included procurement inquiry, the release of the funds, site survey, and designing of the structures. Besides, it encompassed the ordering and delivery of materials to various construction sites, construction processes, and gathering the requirements for designing the company’s website (Kliem, Ludin, & Robertson 1997). Other activities included the implementation of the graphic designs and overall testing of the project in the four sub-regions. The last step entails the closure of the project (See Appendix 1).
The Financial Management Report
The programme was designed to be a major ICT network system having an investment cost estimate of $50 million. The plan was to complete the implementation process in approximately eight months (from January to early July 2015). Various stakeholders that were expected to finance the project included the Government of Canada and other co-financiers that made up to 40-percent contributions. The financial management of the project was indicated to have met some hurdles at the regional levels (White 1995). For instance, there have been financial management challenges perhaps due to the weak public administration of funds and expertise (Havlik et al. 2011). This situation has been evidenced by the overestimation of the budget as summarised in Appendix 2.
Various issues regarding the management of financial inputs were also identified. For instance, several months back, the Public Expenditure Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessed the public finance arrangement of the ongoing ICT upgrading project. Although the results showed a significant improvement, major shortcomings were identified in the areas of predictability and control of the funds. Some weaknesses were also noted in the accounting, recording, and reporting of information. The evaluation of numerous annual reports indicated that the accountability of the financial affairs deteriorated gradually (Meredith & Mantel 2011). At one point, the assessment of the public finance obliged the chief auditors of the docket to issue a warning of possible loss or a standstill project if such factors were not addressed properly prior to its implementation. According to Hodgson (2002), the poor financial administration creates a need to redefine the utilisation of monetary resources as evidenced in the Ottawa ICT project.
The Mechanism of Fund Flow for the Project
To curb the above incidences, the board decided to implement a flow mechanism for the funds. According to the loan and other agreements, the entity responsible for the implementation of the project was a borrower. The FINSENY Company was mandated to monitor the project and review its progress besides ensuring that the funds were spent appropriately. As soon as the loan became effective, it was opened in the FINSENY Company’s books in the borrower’s name. The amount was also credited in the same account. All disbursements under the loan were accomplished according to the FINSENY Company’s books (Shefrin 2001). All direct payment procedures were paid to the beneficiary upon the borrower’s request to the FINSENY Company. They were used for the improvement of the projects, contracts, and consultation services.
Financial Risk Assessment
The risk assessment was continuously done on a monthly basis to identify, characterise, prioritise, and document appropriate mitigation approaches that were relative to the risks. This objective has been accomplished to identify various ICT needs based on the Smart Energy Systems (SES) in the Ottawa region. This situation led to the classification of alternative solutions and standards suitable for the development of the existing ICT framework. The assessment of the financial risks also took into account the specific energy requirements for the FI-PPP initiatives with a view of developing appropriate remedies (Thamhain 2013). This undertaking was meant for the determination of various pitfalls that posed a threat to the FINSENY project. The project leaders also dictated the mitigation plans in an attempt to help identify the new risks and corresponding improvement strategies (Edwards & Bowen 2013). The risk-assessment procedure was based on an International Standard on Auditing 400 Risk Assessment and Internal Control. These risk assessments hinged on various circumstances that were existing, staffing procedures, and information systems (Del Cano & de la Cruz 2002).
Change management has become inevitable in the contemporary business environment. This situation has been primarily brought about by the dynamic nature of technology, especially in the ICT sector. Other factors such as globalisation together with changing societal and environmental needs have also heightened the pace of technological change. As a result, many companies such as FINSENY have realised the importance of adopting sustainable means of delivering ICT products through methods that lead to quality production at minimal costs. This situation has been witnessed in the ICT sector of the Ottawa region (Turner 2014).The FINSENY project was one of the initiatives that were meant to bring about enormous adjustments in the local ICT framework.
Markus (2004) reveals that the implementation of Information Technology means that can lead to significant changes in the society is accompanied by both potential uncertainties and benefits. As a result, the FINSENY initiative required a tailored approach that accounted for the interests of the community in the process of change. According to Huy (2002), the implementation of ICT projects in any society triggers a technology-driven transformation. At the outset, communication was paramount to the successful implementation of the planned project. As witnesses in the FINSENY project, there was a major risk of the failure to use the proposed IT infrastructure. It was also evidenced that this situation greatly influenced the overall project cost, implementation timeline, and feasibility of the solution. Another effect that arose from this assumption was the misalignment of some community aspects such as incentives, values, and attitudes with the objectives of the plan.
The internet infrastructure in the region also affected the effectiveness of implementing the proposed ICT plan. According to Havlik et al. (2011), the Ottawa region had underdeveloped Internet framework in some sectors that included energy, transport, and health among others. This situation posed significant challenges to the implementation of the change process. According to Huy (2002), communication is paramount to the accomplishment of change that is accompanied by technological shifts. Owing to the existing ICT infrastructure in the region, communication amongst the various stakeholders was a limiting factor to the intended pace of executing the project’s objectives.
Sharing of Change Purpose
According to Yew Wong (2005), there is always a need to ensure that the various stakeholder groups properly understand the objectives of any change process. The project managers played a crucial role in communicating the need and purpose for the implementation of the IC project in the Ottawa region. For instance, Havlik et al. (2011) revealed that the creation of motivation amongst individuals and teams significantly underpinned the progress of the intended project.
Maintaining Strong Leadership Values for Change
According to Nenni et al. (2014), the top management ensures that a stronger relationship exists amongst the leaders and employees among other stakeholders who are entrusted to implement the change process. This situation was evidenced in the Ottawa project where the managers established strong working relationships with the employees and suppliers by providing guidance, directions, and support to the change process. The change process is driven by the leadership of the project manager, which sets priorities and defined visions besides availing resources required for greater achievement (Yew Wong 2005). The top management agreed on various change techniques for the implementation process, which was guided by the defined objectives, vision, and teamwork.
Embracement of Engagement
The project manager together with other leaders engaged people in the implementation process by ensuring proper communication that underpinned the provision of accurate information on the anticipated plans. The manager, as seen in the Ottawa project, plans, develops, and executes the desired change processes (Hong & Kim 2002). The leadership fraternity also played a critical part in motivating the employees by improving their skills through on-job training and seminars among programmes.
The top administration, front-line, and middle managers embraced the idea of including the sponsors in the change management process (Johnson et al. 2003). The sponsors were constantly in contact with various management levels, especially the project manager, front-line, and middle managers who played critical roles in ensuring proper engagement and commitment to the change strategies (Marsh 2001).
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The supporters also helped the project manager to avail the required resources in cases where they were inadequate. They also gave clarity to the objectives that were not well defined besides encouraging the necessary skills to ensure that the right personnel were hired to carry out the change management processes (Park & Peña‐Mora 2003). The well-connected sponsors such as the government officials and consultants played a critical role in the soliciting of resources, effective navigation, and provision of implementation directions and plans (Fui-Hoon Nah, Lee-Shang Lau, & Kuang 2001).
The project manager among other staff embraced teamwork and connections both within and outside the company with a view of accomplishing the project implementation successfully. Strong personal connections led to skill building, change in organisational behaviour, and effective delivery of outcome due to the commitment exhibited at both the organisational and individual levels (Dwivedula & Bredillet 2010). The attitudes of the employees towards the change process also improved tremendously. The valuable associations with various stakeholders and the public domain eradicated some hidden actions among the staff and management. This situation leads to a collective performance in the accomplishment of the change process (Todnem By 2005).
Taking on Improved and Continuous Individual Performance
Adaptation plays a crucial role in change management (Love et al. 2002). In this case, the project manager ensured that the employees were provided with the best assistance they needed to adapt to the change process effectively. The support accorded to the personnel led to the minimisation of errors and disruptions. It also enhanced the performance since it underpinned the proper embracement of the transition process.
The proper management of change processes is accomplished by sharing the vision of the organisation (Van der Meer-Kooistra & Vosselman 2000). This strategy created a common ground of understanding amongst the management, staff, and other stakeholders. The project manager and personnel had their individual visions and objectives. However, the objectives were in line with the company’s vision that ensured the realisation of a positive outcome. Improved morale due to the personal commitment revealed through the organisation’s shared visions.
Adoption of a Comprehensive Approach
It is the mandate of the project manager to ensure that a master plan exists prior to the initiation of the change process (Takata et al. 2004). In the Ottawa project, the programme addressed issues about culture, motivation, reward systems, implementation strategies, staffing processes, and organisational structure. These activities are linked together to ensure continuity (Trkman 2010).
In the event of the change, the implementation process required the collective participation amongst the individuals and teams in different departments. Employees participated in teamwork activities. This situation resulted in improved performance as depicted in the progress of the overall implementation process (Boehm & Turner 2005). This teamwork encouraged the spirit of improvement through skill development and problem solving at the individual, team, and organisational levels. The employees working as teams ensured that the desired quality required was achieved. This state of events brings about self-contentment (Todnem By 2005).
Employee involvement in the implementation activities is paramount to the realisation of empowerment (Kerzner 2013). The project manager and other leaders constantly provided directions that were executed at the team level. The employees were greatly empowered through the elimination of the management layers that interfered with the flow of decisions. The leaders provided them with the correct directions and priorities besides ensuring the facilitation of the overall change process. As a result, the involvement of the employees in the change activities enables them solve problems and implement decisions on the derived solutions (Jarrar, Al-Mudimigh, & Zairi 2000).
Various communication approaches were used to reduce the projected risks. Regular meetings were scheduled to ensure that the necessary information was administered appropriately to the relevant groups. The execution of the change process was supported by top-down, bottom-up, and parallel communication strategies. The project managers’ directives were conveyed through effective communication continuously, consistently, and repetitively to ensure clarity. Besides, the management held constant meetings with the employees at the interdepartmental units. This state of events ensures the involvement of the employees in every activity that is carried out within the project timeline (Leonard, Graham, & Bonacum 2004). The consistent communication enhanced transparency, honesty, and accountability whilst ensuring the provision of updates among the personnel who were constantly involved in the day-to-day activities of the project.
The project sponsors, steering committee, managers, user group participants, and consultants among other teams set a communication plan. The methodology of communication used embraced three dimensions that included the top-down approach to ensure the executive’s support. Secondly, the bottom-up dimension underpinned the buy-in and confidence of everybody who ensured that the proposed changes were executed appropriately. The middle-out dimension provided a steady and full support at all levels for improvement. This objective was realised through the assumption of personal responsibility for the accomplishment of the project goals (Griffith 2003).
The following is a procedure of the communication events that were established for the success of the project. There was a monthly status review whereby the project manager was constantly providing a monthly report. It entailed numerous plans that included the summary of the tasks accomplished in the previous month, scheduled tasks, and review of the status of various issues and corresponding resolutions (Kezsbom & Edward 2001). Besides, a monthly steering committee meeting was held at the end of every month. The project leader was charged with the responsibility of compiling and availing the status report before the next meeting. The members of the steering committee were expected to participate in all the meetings. As seen in the project, the team conducted a bi-monthly status meeting at the end of every month (Suter et al. 2009).
Maintenance during the Change Process
Various plans that were set for the realisation of the outputs included the service of equipment, applications, infrastructure, and support manuals for the system development and negotiation processes (Mitchell et al. 2015).
Project Change Control
Various planned and unplanned changes that are expected during the implementation process require it to be closely monitored to avoid any flaws (Bennett & Rajlich 2000). The board anticipated and planned the possible changes via the risk analysis contingency plans. They also kept the records of accomplishment of any emerging issues by following the proper management procedures among other resolution approaches.
Scope of the Project
The primary objective of the proposed project was to ensure an increased accessibility of the ICT services by over 10 million residents of the Ottawa region. This move was mean to improve the connectivity of the residents with a view of promoting the economic development in the area. This undertaking was accomplished through the maintenance of the existing ICT infrastructure in addition to establishing further networks in areas that lacked the facilities. The programme was set up as a sustainable ICT and networking system in the region to ensure the maximisation of its use. This project also contributed to the overall development strategy that was stipulated by the areas local government. Moreover, it was initiated to combine various public and private institutions in the region. An estimation of the completed project covered about 90-percent of the total area.
List of the Main Requirements of the Project
The main requirements for the successful completion of the ICT network project included the establishment of the building sites, construction materials, network cables, server installation, and configuration of gadgets, software for public area displays and internet surfing. Other items included the financial resources, skilled labour, transportation facilities, and housing among others.
Work Breakdown Structure of the Project (WBS)
The work breakdown structure for the installation and improvement of the existing ICT networking systems was carried out in the four sub-regions of the Ottawa region. Each region had three main offices that were constructed in three stages namely the organisation of the site, office furnishing, and equipping the offices with the required ICT networking systems. An interconnection of the offices was done in the whole region. The WBS designed was used to identify various risks during the project implementation process.
The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) of the Ottawa Project
Analysis of the Risks identified in the WBS of the Project
The risks identified were summarised as follows.
|Risk type||Risk assessment||Description||Mitigation|
|Implementing Entity||Moderate||Misinterpretation of the guidelines for the fund disbursement and withdrawal processes||The financial manager had to liaise with other managers of the project to ensure that the proper guidelines were established and followed.|
|Flow of funds||High||Challenges of management of disbursements, late issuance of funds and sometimes incorrect amounts|| |
|Staffing||Moderate|| || |
|Reporting and monitoring||High|| || |
Table 4: Analysis of the Risks identified in the WBS of the Project.
Gantt Chart representing the Major Activities of the Project
The table below indicates various activities undertaken in the ICT and network development and timeline duration for completion.
|Activity||Timeline for completion (duration)|
|Procurement inquiry and release of funds||Mid- January to end of January 2015|
|Surveying of the sites and designing of the structures||February 2015|
|Ordering and delivery of materials||Mid-March to end of March 2015|
|Commencement of construction||April to end of April 2015|
|Gathering requirements for website designing||May 1 to end Mid-May 2015|
|Designing process(creation of wireframe, detailed design, and its review)||June 2015|
|Implementation (graphic design, coding, testing)||Mid-June 2015 to end of June 2015|
|Closure of the Project||July 2015|
The board noted that stakeholders had a role to play in the project implementation right from the beginning. The stakeholders were incorporated into the project to support its success (Sutterfield, Friday-Stroud, & Shivers-Blackwell 2006). Their contributions and interests in the project implementation were analyzed in the table below.
|Priority||Stakeholder||Role in Project Development||Ranking (Low at 1; Moderate at 2; High at 3)|
|1.||Chief executive officer||Conduct oversight processes||High|
|2.||Project steering committee||Ensure decision making in the project implementation||High|
|Project Manager||Ensure that the overall project initiation, progress and completion is successful||High|
|3.||Project sponsors||Sponsor of the whole project, advocating for the implementation||High|
|4||Surveyors||Conduct survey procedures||High|
|5.||Designers||Design the systems and construction to be built||High|
|6.||Programmers||Responsible for all software programmes of the ICT||High|
Table 6: Contributions and interests of the stakeholders in the project implementation.
Project teams were developed to ensure the minimisation of repetition of activities in the project implementation processes. These employees were organised into teams to ensure activity separation and collective implementation f the process. This strategy pulled together various talents that promoted the development of solutions in areas that were deemed challenging (Turner & Müller 2003). A functional project team structure was chosen since it supports the formulation of quick and informed decisions. The top management easily coordinated and influenced various activities in the course of the project. Furthermore, the team members were also given a clear chance for the development of their careers and more defined responsibilities. The choice of the structure together with the available personnel to undertake the required responsibilities in implementing the project saw its successful completion. A sample layout of the responsibility of the ICT programmers and their coordination with the programme manager is summarised below.
At every mid-month, a memorandum was sent to the chief executive officer to elaborate the progress and status of the ICT project. The sample memorandum below was sent to the executive officer in mid-June to reveal the progress of the project.
Chief Executive Officer (CEO)
Date: 15 June 2015
Re: Progress and status of the ICT project
The main objective of this memo is to elaborate the progress and status of the ongoing project on the installation of the ICT network in four sub-regions of the Ottawa town.
In January 2015, the board members held their first meeting on the initiation of the ICT network project in Ottawa town. They discussed various concepts and processes that the project was to undergo. The project officially started on 5 January 2015. Various activities that were to be accomplished in the regions were reviewed. As indicated in this memo, the activities progressed successfully despite a few problems that were identified and solved. The major issue that requires attention regards the financial docket. As indicated in the meeting, various concerns included the clarification on specific rules vis-à-vis the presentation of the financial statements. Most committee members had expressed their concerns on the financial statements because the concepts adopted failed to embrace an efficient reporting mechanism for the expenditure patterns. The board deliberated various budgetary reports and actions that were to be taken on the spending criteria outlined by the sponsors and government concerning the allocation of funds for the projects outlined in the implementation plan. The staffs and steering committee did not comprehend the statements of the budget.
Therefore, I propose that the staff should not accept the concepts related to the budget reports until the required models of the financial reporting are adopted. The information contained in the financial statement must be clear to promote the understanding amongst the involved stakeholders. My options include using the hierarchy model to help the users understand the interrelationships existing amongst the financial statements deeply. Under the hierarchy system, various financial statements can be grouped into budgetary, accruals, projections, short term, and point-in-time for sustainability. These categorising approaches should be included in the statements.
Regarding the status of the project’s progress and milestone, various reviews have been conducted. The activities about the change have been supported accordingly. Specialised responsibilities have also designated to the relevant project leaders. So far, the project has succeeded in areas such as civil, mechanical, and electrical designs, plan review, supplier selections, installation, and procurement of the required materials and equipment.
Please feel free to contact me via (insert your e-mail address) for further elaboration.
Motivation Analysis of the Project Process
Motivation remained a crucial element in the implementation of the ICT project. The Maslow’s hierarchy of needs played a vital role in the motivation of various project teams. This situation heightened collaborative efforts towards the execution and progress of the projects activities. Training was also offered frequently to train the employees in the installation of new ICT infrastructure. This situation led to the increased motivation among the employees who were towards the success of the project. Besides, the managers ensured that various factors of motivation were clearly defined by categorising them according to their external and internal aspects (Maslow 1943). Emphasis was laid on the interpersonal relationships, working conditions, and payment terms to promote the motivational levels of the employees (Heery & Noon 2008; Hertzberg 1974). Other drivers for enthusiasm focused on the significance of sound communication and feedback channels. The presence of various managers and leaders at every level of operation was paramount to the sustenance of motivation amongst the staff (White 1995).
During the progress of the project, everybody was well motivated as was evident in the work progress. The workforce involved in the creation of various breakdowns of activities, especially in the early stages of the project implementation. In such situations, employee engagement and responsibility promoted enthusiasm. The presence of the project manager who set collective goals in the organisation built enthusiasm amongst the teams (Jaafari 2003). However, an issue that demoralised the employees was linked to the constant change of the project’s scope. There was a notable decrease in the motivation of the employees in the course of the implementation process.
Closure Report of Ottawa Region ICT Centres for the Network Upgrading Project
Project Name: Ottawa Region ICT for Network Upgrading Project
Project Sponsor: The Government of Canada
Date Approved: 4 July 2015
This project closure presents a final document to ensure the formal closure of the project in Ottawa region of Canada. The report presents an assessment of the performance, review, and validation of the milestones and success of the overall project, confirmation of various outstanding issues, risks and recommendations, lessons, and plans to handover current activities.
The FINSENY Company was mandated to upgrade the various ICT centres as well as building new ICT facilities in the four major sub-regions of the Ottawa town in Canada. The various activities as widely elaborated in the report presented in two phases. The first section has elaborated on the financial management, change management that incurred and the management of the overall relationships formed during the implementation. The second section has detailed provided documentation of the various activities as well as gauging the project whether successful. The time duration of the project was seven months that commenced from the month of January 2015 to early July 2015.
Reasons for the Project Closure
The project was closed because all the objectives and deliverables concerning the overall project implementation were met and completed. This situation was due to the satisfaction of the steering committee concerning all the outstanding items that had been addressed based on the objectives stipulated at the start of the project.
Assessment of the Project’s Performance
Achievement of Objectives and the Budget Summary
The project was successful and the objectives of upgrading the ICT networks in four sub-regions in Ottawa town. All the activities, as budgeted, fitted successfully; hence, a supplementary financial plan was not made. The only problem was an issue of timely disbursement of funds in time for the successful project completion. This situation led to the completion of activities in late June rather than early June 2015. A double entry of finance was also realised in transportation whereby it was an independent action. It was allocated funds but specific activities such as the infrastructure in Section 1 indicated transportation increases expenses. Such issues led to the double entry of activities thereby raising the implementation cost.
The total cost of the project was $50 million. As indicated in the report, the upgrading and installation of ICT programme in the four regions of Ottawa was funded and implemented as an overall project. This state of affairs enabled greater synergies of activities on the project as indicated in section 1.
Performance Review against Timeframe and Outcome
|Activity||Time-line for completion (duration)||Results||Comment|
|Procurement inquiry and release of funds||Mid- January to end of January 2015||Ended in time and funds availed||Successful|
|Surveying of the sites and designing of the structures||February 2015||Ended on time |
Good sites were located
|Ordering and delivery of materials||Mid-March to end of March 2015||The ordering and delivery were timely||Successful|
|Commencement of construction||April to end of May 2015||There was no delay experienced||Successful|
|Gathering requirements for website designing||Mid-May to end of May 2015||Completed and was ready||Successful|
|Designing process(creation of wireframe, detailed design and its review)||Towards the end of May through June 2015||All the four regions were completed within the time frame except one that ended after later than expected||Successful|
|Implementation (graphic design, coding, testing)||Mid-June 2015 to end of June 2015.||Was perfect after testing of all items and activities||Successful|
|Closure of the Project||July 2015||The overall project was successful||Perfect|
Table 7: Performance Review, Timeframe, and Outcome.
Success and celebration
A greater success was that 80 percent of the Ottawa residents could receive ICT network systems. This situation was a boost to the business activities and connectivity previously rated 45-percent.
The teamwork was at the heart of the successful implementation of activities on the network upgrading in four regions of Ottawa town. All the stakeholders were eager to work together and appreciated their diversity differences in change management process. The only difficulty experienced was in the financial docket where funds were not released in time in some instances. This situation led to some delay at some stages especially during the installation of programme software.
A future undertaking and success of a new project should be planned in time. Funds should be availed in various bank accounts to ensure quick fund disbursement instead of using one central account. A process of change management requires combining diversity and inclusion of everybody to boost their morale.
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Appendix 1: Activities and projected time for the completion of the project
|Activity||Timeline for completion (duration)|
|Procurement inquiry and release of the funds||Mid- January to end of January 2015|
|Surveying of the sites and designing of the structures||February 2015|
|Ordering and delivery of materials||Mid-March to end of March 2015|
|Commencement of construction||April to end of May 2015|
|Gathering requirements for website designing||Mid-May to end of May 2015|
|Designing process(creation of wireframe, detailed design and its review)||Towards the end of May through June 2015|
|Implementation (graphic design, coding, testing)||Mid-June 2015 to end of June 2015|
|Closure of the Project||Early July 2015|
Appendix 2: Summary of the Budget
|Items and Activities||Budget Summary|
|Requirements for infrastructures such as building||$20million|
|ICT structures||$10 million|
|Ordering and delivery of materials and transportation expenditure (supplies)||$5million|
|Architectural and survey division||$3 million|
|Engineering division||$2 million|
Appendix 3: Sample Budget for Buildings and Infrastructure used
|Material Cost||Subcontract Work||Temporary Work||Machinery Cost||Total Cost|
|Steel Piling |
Total of direct cost
Common Temporary Work
Office Operating Costs
Total of Indirect Cost
The budget presented above indicates an allocation of the transportation expenses.