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Parkinson’s Disease Case Study Analysis Report (Assessment)

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Updated: Jun 17th, 2022

Introduction

Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by shaking, difficulty walking, stiffness, and poor coordination. In this case, a 67-year-old man complains of tremors in his arms and legs and mentions stiffness as a barrier to performing simple tasks. The analysis of neurological and musculoskeletal pathophysiologic processes and racial/ethnic variables helps understand the condition and improve the quality of care that can be offered to patients.

Neurological and Musculoskeletal Pathophysiologic Processes

The pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease covers host susceptibility, the environment, and genetics. Neurological changes are observed as a result of certain neurotransmitters being lost. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter located in the substantia nigra and aims to coordinate brain activities like movement and motivation (Emamzadeh & Surguchov, 2018). As soon as the degeneration process begins and reaches the basal ganglia, more cells become affected, leading to problematic motor control. Tremors in the patient’s extremities become the main symptom of this condition. A forward flexion trunk is a postural deformity related to frontal lobe dysfunction (Mikami et al., 2017). The client demonstrates uneven gait and shuffling, with his knees being flexed forward. Neuronal changes also provoke the formation of Lewy bodies (α-synucleinopathies with protein inclusions) in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and spread over the basal forebrain and the medial temporal lobe (Magrinelli et al., 2016). Extreme sweating, pill-rolling movements, and inabilities to complete daily routines are the signs of these pathophysiological changes.

Interaction of Processes

On the one hand, it is correct to say that Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder that influences the work of brain cells. On the other hand, it is important to consider both neurological and musculoskeletal pathophysiologic processes to understand the condition. The interaction between the highlighted processes is explained by the functions of damaged brain cells, and, in Parkinson’s disease, they cover movement control. Motor features of Parkinson’s disease include bradykinesia, hypokinesia, and akinesia and result in movement deficit and muscle burst (Magrinelli et al., 2016). These problems explain stiffness, tremors, and the lack of mobility. The growth of Lewy bodies provokes poor reasoning, slowness, and confusion. Although these symptoms are not observed in the patient, the disorder’s pathology shows that new changes may be developed soon.

Racial/Ethnic Variables

Racial and ethnic differences in patients who are diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease are frequently studied. The disease is multifactorial and affects all races and ethnicities. According to Sauerbier et al. (2018), Africans and Asians express phenotypic variants, including the possibility of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene. However, the prevalence of this disorder regarding the environmental factor is highly observed among Caucasians compared to Blacks (Branson et al., 2016). Still, African-Americans patients report having greater disease severity compared to Whites (Branson et al., 2016). Such regions as Japan, China, Singapore, and Saudi Arabia show a low prevalence of the disease, while the citizens of Spain, Italy, Germany, and America report Parkinson’s disease frequently.

Conclusion

In general, the impact of the environment, genetic, and host agents in the body provokes changes in neurotransmitters’ functioning. The brain (substantia nigra) is challenged by dopamine degeneration, and people are not able to perform their regular activities because of tremors, stiffness, and poor coordination. This case introduces the patient to the first signs of Parkinson’s disease, and his son makes the correct decision to address for help. In addition to the already observed movement changes, behavioral and mental problems could develop with time.

References

Branson, C. O., Ferree, A., Hohler, A. D., & Saint-Hilarie, M. (2016). . Advances in Parkinson’s Disease, 5, 87-96.

Emamzadeh, F. N., & Surguchov, A. (2018). . Frontiers in Neuroscience, 12.

Magrinelli, F., Picelli, A., Tocco, P., Federico, A., Roncari, L., Smania, N., Zanette, G., & Tamburin, S. (2016). . Parkinson’s Disease, 2016.

Mikami, K., Shiraishi, M., Kawasaki, T., & Kamo, T. (2017). . PLoS One, 12(7).

Sauerbier, A., Aris, A., Lim, E. W., Bhattacharya, K., & Ray Chaudhuri, K. (2018). . Medical Journal of Australia, 208(9), 410-414.

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