How have the three major ideologies outlined in Johnson, Chapter 2 influenced the policy and program development of Canadian governments since the Second World War?
The state is the biggest stakeholder in the contemporary civilization, regimes and managerial roles are always present in the daily life of each Canadian. Various scholars and individuals contest over what could be the best policies to be applied in public administration. The debate is mainly concerned about the middle path between individual thoughts and collective rights and responsibilities. The debate is so crucial in determining state functions and political culture. The ethos of Canadians constitutes various strains of ideologies, ranging from the respect of the state and the roles of governments.
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Conservative Thought and the State
On the precision of the political continuum in this state stands conservatism. This school of thought includes a set of thoughts that encourage the values of individuality, belief, freedom, contest, self-interests, clandestine possessions, and a communal order based on esteem for the precedent, personality liberty and liability, liberated venture and pro-business financial environment. Essential to contemporary traditionalist thought is individualism.
The creature is professed as the basic structure wedge of the world; definitely, to conservatives, society is not anything except compilation of diverse and self-directing persons, and these persons are the motivating strength of communal development. People in conservative thinking are visualized as lucid and egocentric people who are familiar with how to live their individual lives without the need for others, and particularly not the nation, to inform them how to accomplish. Conservatism mostly provides that every individual is accountable for his or her own existence and happiness and that each individual ought to have the socio-economic and political liberty to formulate the most of his or her own chances.
Liberalism Thought and Economic Development
In this though, it is assumed that politics and economics have no relationship. This thought is organized on the principle of the market as the most efficient instrument in allocation capacity. Moreover, liberal economic theory emphasizes that politics and economics ideally are separate. This implies that economic activities operate on their own internal logics. On the logics of the market is that it offers a diversity of options, consumers whether rich or poor, driven by mere consumptions or class will all be accommodated.
The conjecture stipulates that human beings are rational thinkers in that they make calculations pertaining to the market opportunities and compare it with their capacity. The ideology presupposes economic activities that are left to the market environment nurtures competition through enhanced quality. Those individuals or parties that are unable to keep up with pace in relation to market environment needs will be eased out as they will be replaced by stronger providers (Campbell & Christian, 1995, p. 89).
In other words, the instrument of the market guarantees mass happiness due to its flexibility while at the same time it offers an opportunity for societies to realize rapid economic development. Scholars allied to liberal economic thought do conceive that economics is peaceful because communities that trade together will relate and co-exist very harmoniously since their interests are tied progressively through trade transactions.
Most of the scholars upholding the tenets of this theory are commonly referred to as neo-Marxists. To the scholars, neither the market nor the state can guarantee human happiness, since the owners of the means of production control the market. The state is the property of the owners of the means of production. The ideology emphasizes that the people should determine their destiny, that is, it is only through collectivization of interests by the populace that they will improve their welfare. This implies that production and distribution is socialized around the people (Johnson & Tommaso, 2010, p. 35).
Is liberalism still the dominant ideology within this country or has the centre shifted so far to the right that we can now speak of conservatism as being the dominant set of ideas influencing government? Illustrate your answer with practical examples of policies and programs and assess whether such policies or programs reflect liberal, conservative, or even social democratic thought.
Records have confirmed that the liberal midpoint of the Canadian political gamut has been the major position for structuring civil backing. The achievement with which the Liberal party has apprehended this midpoint view has caused the top parties of the left and the right to adjust to slacken their policies to advance their political and electoral plea to the preponderance of electorate (Jonson, 2006).
This is never to recommend that the midpoint opinion is itself everlastingly secured in a static sensible liberal setting. The midpoint of the political gamut shifts in reply to varying collective and financial thoughts ubiquitous in the public at some specified instance and so should be defined comparatively. The curiosity of the majority key parties in search of controlling such essential opinions, for it is here, by description where the largest part of the populace are inherent and consequently where nearly everyone with a vote is to be found.
Given that the midpoint is defined in terms of the political principles of nearly all, then as these kinds regarding the preferred scenery of culture, the financial structure and the task of the state vary with time, and then the temperament of the political midpoint perhaps ought to be calculated from changed standpoints too. In the previous decades of the 20th century, the political civilization of this state was subjugated by conservative, laisser-faire philosophy, accommodating liberated venture, a mainly unfettered clandestine segment and an extremely diminutive state playing a partial function in the public and financial life of the state.
This was the epoch of the nighttime security guard situation, with the function of government unspecified by the majority of the citizens, as well as the two major political parties, to be the stipulation of fundamental civic safety and transport as well as communications services. A sluggish modification in the temperament of Canadian political traditions augmented in 1920s when the centralized liberal party drew closer to sanction liberalism as its philosophy.
This comparative leftward shift by the party can be ascribed both to Mackenzie King’s personal idea and as well as to Liberal’s wisdom of a political reorientation amongst the most popular of Canadians approving self-effacing center-left advancement to public and financial life.
The conclusion of the war patented the foundation of current Canada and the augmentation of the contemporary Canadian state. The regime of Mackenzie king actually signaled this latest condition through particular guideline proposals instigated during the war or soon afterward. A countrywide redundancy indemnity structure was formed in 1945 and a countrywide employment affairs structure distinguishing the validity of trade and manufacturing merger, unionization and liberated communal agreement between blending and administration (Jonson, 2006, p. 112).
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Campbell, C. & Christian, C. (1995). Parties, leaders, and ideologies in Canada. New York: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
Johnson, D. (2006). Thinking government: public sector management in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto.
Johnson, S. & Tommaso, M. (2010). Language Ideologies and Media Discourse: Texts, Practices, Politics. New York, NY: Continuum International Publishing Group.