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Conservatism, Nationalism, Socialism as Ideologies Essay

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Updated: Jan 30th, 2021

Conservatism

This is an opinionated and social philosophy that advocates on promotion of the traditional institution through support and maintenance. Some conservatives will try to preserve things by leaving them in their original forms while others will try to change things by use of modern mechanisms. From the time of its establishment, the term has been used in the description of a broad range of views about political science. Conservative has far been viewed as an attitude, a force and a function of time aimed at developing a free society in response to the basic requirements of human nature (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

A category of conservatism that combines the aspects of conservatism with liberalism is referred to as conservative liberalism. This ideology owes its origin from the beginning of liberalism when the political class was formed under conservative liberalism. The impact of the First World War brought a more variable classical liberalism that brought this ideology. Libertarian conservatism combines the two and was common in US and Canada and lobbies for economic and personal freedom. This ideology supports free trade and opposes national banks, and business regulations (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

Fiscal conservatism is an economic principle that calls for wisdom in government spending. Conservatism argues that the government should be responsible for its debt accumulation and should not throw the responsibility to its citizens. Green conservatism entails involvement of green concerns into their ideologies. They are mainly concerned with finding efforts in curbing environmental issues, conservation of the natural resources and protection of human environmental health (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

Social conservatism calls for sharing of culture s between nations. They have a strong faith in traditional values in politics in trying to maintain nationalisms. Social conservatism is much different in that, the government has responsibility to enforce and encourage these values so as to preserve morality and social norms (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

Religious conservatism will try to accommodate the teachings of a specific religion in politics, by fixing their values into their teachings and in some cases trying to make those teachings influence the law. The incorporation of religious beliefs into the helps in shaping the religious power that can be used in governance. These religious values can be included in the making of the laws by the bodies concerned.

Psychologists’ researchers in their studies argue that relationship that exists between conservatism and racial related issues is strong. This will only depend on different levels an individual has attained in terms of education and relationships.the correlation between conservatism and racism is also dependent on the society dominance in terms of orientations than in terms of laid down principles (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

Nationalism

This is an ideology concerned with the identification of groups or individuals with political stands nationally. The identity of a person is created by the nationalism. Different strands of nationalism can also be used to identify a group of persons or an individual. Citizenship can be restricted to ethnic groups, religions, cultural, or identity groups. One has the right to express his/her national identity even if the origin is from a minority group. In some cases nationalism due to some reactions calls for the rebuild of the nation give home for the underclass ethnic groups by means of forming revolutions to expel the foreigners (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

Nationalism will emphasize on collective identification of individuals to create unity in expression of national that stands alone. This brings about a unit with different social classes but of same goal in politics. The deep emotions expressed in respect of these symbols are as sign of patriotism and loyalty to ones nation and nationality. As per the principle of civic nationalism, the nation is not based upon the same ethnic origin but political unit of whose foundation is not laid upon ethnicity. Ethnic nationalism does not mean being dominance in terms of ethnicity over the others. This may be in full support in some nations through means of offering better services and protection for the supreme ethnic groups (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

National purity is the act of some nationalists keeping specific groups in exclusion. These groups are kept in separate following their language, religion, ethnic groups or the all of these combined. This will tend to make these minorities feel not being true components national community. Socialist nationalism is a movement motivated by politics with nationalism. Most of these movements are aimed at liberating a nation against miss use by other nations.they require put efforts among themselves so as they can uproot themselves from the alleged intruders (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

In territorial nationalism it is believed that all those occupy a particular nation.

Owns their origin to their country of birth or where they were adopted. In this case it is believed that citizenship is maintained by territorial nationalism in trying to maintain culture in terms of traditions norms and populations. The opposite is pan nationalism whereby a large area of population is considered with more ethnic groups. Ultra nationalism is keen nationalism that shows full support of ones national’s principles. It is involved if finding illegal immigrants, reduction and stopping of immigration, removal and deposition of non natives (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

Anti colonial nationalism originated after the period of war.Mainly, this came from the response of Africana and Asia recovering from colonial powers.This took many forms some being peaceful and some took a form of massive resistance. Nationalism have been criticized that it has not been clearly known of what really constitutes a nation or the reason for a nation being the only solid figure in political rule unit. It should therefore be viewed as a cultural figure and not necessary as a political monument that is associated with a particular territorial area (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

Socialism

This is an economic system whereby the sequence and production means have been dominated and its control is in form of cooperatives.It is based on removal of hierarchy in management of affairs in politics and economy as its way of social organization. Economic socialism is concerned with production for basic consumption and distribution of economic inputs to satisfy the demands needed for human use. The cost of production is accounted following the measure of labor, quantities of resources and the physical magnitude (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

The finished goods and services are supplied and distributed through market depending on the purchasing powers of the consumers as per their levels of income. Socialism as political movement deals with a wide range of political philosophies. Nationalism is advocated for by socialism by the use of different stake holders who are used in the formation of strategies to implement socialism. Since its origin socialism has criticized the effects of industrialization and private ownership of properties in the society (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

Socialists see capitalism as a method designed to produce wealth through the use of power to control the process of production within a concentrated area by the means of exploitation. This brings inequality in the society due to the unequal sharing of available opportunities. Socialism is aimed at allowing an equal distribution of wealth depending on how one is ready to give onto the society as per what one holds.

A major goal of socialism is to fight for social equality and distribution of wealth to benefit the society in full (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

Today, the social democracy is mostly supported by many socialists in efforts to establish reforms on the current issues affecting socialism. The current social democracy is aimed at coming up with projects that will try to make changes on capitalism to make it more humane and equitable. Democratic socialism tries to come up with an economy that is free especially for the working class (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

Leninism work is to guide the working class of people in their race to reach the state. It is believed that socialism cannot rise instantly after the fall of capitalism due to lack of development of socialists consciousness by the workers. The solution is only provided by the leadership provided by the promoted party. Leninists will try to build a state in which the working class takes power over which they see it essential to build a society that is stateless (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

In my opinion, socialism provides the best perspective of freedom of equality. This is mainly depicted by democratic socialism through social democracy. The act of trying to fight with capitalism helps people to freely involve themselves into projects that bring down capitalism and come up with an economy that is free for all. The formation of stateless society means people will have a more humane and equitable life.

Feminism

Feminism is a political ideology that emphasizes on social, economic and political equality between men and women. Feminists are people in support of feminism and who seek gender equality for women. Activities of feminism involve campaigns for women’s rights especially in men dominated environments. Feminism movements fight for the rights of women, their independence and their physical integrity by campaigning against sexual harassment, domestic violence, and equality at work place. Feminists have advocated for equal pay, career opportunities, leadership roles and working conditions for both men and women (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011). This paper seeks to explain why some feminists view women as oppressed. It also outlines this situation as depicted by contemporary Canada.

Feminism as a political ideology comprises of liberal feminism, radical feminism, socialist feminism, and conservative feminism. Radical feminists, and most common, seek to totally reconstruct the society since they believe that the male dominated society is the defining characteristic of oppression. Socialist feminists link women with oppression and attempt to stop both discrimination in terms of class and gender. Conservative feminism depends on the society or the subjects in question (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

The fundamental reasoning or belief of a feminist is that “women are an oppressed class”. They work very hard to stop this oppression by liberating women; giving them equal rights in the society. Some feminists seek to change the entire system by which men and women have grown. They have challenged the traditional setting where men have been given the “hard roles” and women have taken what is considered the “light roles”. They have widened and deepened the basic meaning of being a woman in an arguably male dominated society. Other feminists believe that the system does need to change, but it needs to be challenged (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

Feminists view women as oppressed and this makes them very active in their campaigns. However, this has been viewed as aggression by those who campaign against feminists. Feminists allow themselves to enter into the world of oppressed women and react against their own oppressors. However, they assert that they do not fight against men as individuals, but they fight against the entire oppressive system. The reaction against their ways of campaign is not always welcomed by the society. In most cases, feminists have been described as “man-haters” and have been criticized as rebels, regardless of their campaign approach.

Feminists view women as oppressed due to the way women are treated in the society. In Africa and some parts Asia, female genital mutilation is still evident even after decades of activism. Women do not make major decisions; young girls are married off when still young and are not supposed to question the decision. Feminists have discovered discrimination against women goes beyond sexual orientation. It has a lot to do with the societal belief on gender roles, something that is emotionally oppressive. The society has historically dictated how a woman should act, her roles, and her behaviors; this results to oppression because this typical master slave environment.

The society has a lot of misconceptions on women. There are some beliefs that women are less interested in sex, a misconception that degrades their sexuality. There are also beliefs that most feminists are lesbians. In the work place, the traditional assumptions were that women were not allowed to take lead positions. These misconceptions are some of the reasons why feminists believe that women are the oppressed gender.

Statistics indicate that most women are sexually and verbally abused at some point in their life; no such statistics exist for men. This is a form of oppression that makes feminist believe in women’s oppression. Statistics also indicate that domestic violence oppresses more women than men (Mintz, Close, & Croci, 2011).

There is a perceived social superiority accorded to men. The same men harass women at all places; when taking walks, driving, in shopping malls, and even in public gatherings. It is very hard to find a man harassing another man; the few cases end up in fights, something impossible for women. The society has formed an oppressive culture that makes men to believe that women are inferior. The law dwells much on physical abuse than on verbal abuse which are more oppressive. Feminists attempt to empower women to get rid of the belief that they are meant to be dependent, passive, placating, and submissive.

The oppressive culture in contemporary Canada is encouraged silently by the entire society. Although language has allowed equivalence in gender, this is neglected. In reality, it is possible to hear someone referring to grown woman as a “girl, honey or baby”. These terms have no equivalence in men, and as a matter of fact, an immature boy is sometimes promoted to a man or a gentleman. Some TV personalities have gone to the extent of introducing grown women as a “beautiful girls”. Although the news anchor may mean no harm to the lady, feminist have viewed this as oppressive.

The majority of Canadians question the relevance of feminism, and some believe that is extraneous. The contemporary Canada has repetitively attacked and abused the right of women. The feminists’ organizations or any women organizations suffer lack of funding. Women, both indigenous and refugees face equal oppressive treatment. This was among the first nations to recognize the rights of women to vote in 1919 and the first woman parliamentarian in 1921, but Canada still need the roles of feminism.

The current conservative government is limiting women and feminism activities. Recently, human rights and women movements found their rude shock when a bill that was to criminalize coercion into abortion failed. The current government can be described as “antifeminist and oppressive to women” because it has seen the elimination of the word equality in the mission statement of Status of Women Canada. All the funding in support of independent research, advocacy and campaigns carried out by Status of Women Canada has been withdrawn. Many feminist organizations have died or ceased to operate for lack of funding.

The national feminist organization in Canada, “The National Action Committee” was dissolved as a result of lack of financial support from the government. The only existing feminist organizations are grass root in operation and do not have a national coverage. Some are characterized by young people seeking to fight oppression and patriarchy existing in Canada. The first Canadian Young Feminists Gathering convention was held in 2008 has been growing since than. Currently, the organization is reaching the entire country and empowering all the young feminists to rise against oppression, capitalism and patriarchy in Canada.

References

Mintz, E., Close, D., & Croci, O. (2011). Politics, Power and the Common Good: An Introduction to Political Science, 3rd ed. Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Education.

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