Introduction to Pender Health Promotion Model
Health promotion models adopt nursing and behavioral science perspectives to describe the multidimensional nature of persons interacting with their interpersonal and physical environments in pursuit of health (Bastable, 2006). The Pender model is made up of three major constructs. The first is individual characteristics and experiences. The other is behavior-specific cognitions and effects. The third is behavior outcomes (Bastable, 2006). The framework explores the complex processes that motivate an individual to participate in health behaviors. It is based on the need for nurses to nurture their patients and educate them on ways of reaching optimum health. Patient education is a process through which a patient is made to understand their condition and self-care through the use of different medians and experiences. To be effective patient educators, nurses should familiarize themselves with various theoretical models of patient and family education (Friedman, Bowden & Jones 2002).
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In this report, the author analyzes a modified version of this framework. In this case, the Pender model will be used to educate patients on their health and on how to use their current conditions to influence others to take up preventive measures.
Reasons for Selecting the Framework
The Pender model was selected because it provides a basis through which a patient’s behavior can be manipulated into influencing others to take up preventive strategies. For instance, a patient suffering from a sexually transmitted infection can be educated on how to improve their health and made to understand the need for using protection. Several studies have used this model. For example, the research by Bauer (2008) was informed by the increasing number of patients suffering from preventable diseases, such as obesity and HIV/AIDS. The spread of HIV/AIDS can be prevented through the use of protection, while diabetes can be avoided by adopting a healthy lifestyle. Efforts to control the diseases are directed towards healthy persons in the public (Bastable, 2006). Bauer (2008) takes a completely different approach.
Significance to Nursing Practice in Urban Family Population
The model will be of great significance to nursing practice and the public at large. It will help to prevent the occurrence of new infections. The model will also provide new strategies for controlling a wide range of diseases (Bastable, 2006).
Use Pender’s Framework in Research
The framework has been used in two research situations to find out the possibility of eliminating HIV/AIDS and diabetes. In recent times, there has been an increase in the spread of HIV/AIDS among urban families despite efforts made to control the situation (Bauer, 2008). The research by Bauer (2008) shows that many people are aware of the risky behaviors associated with the disease. However, they continue to engage in the same behaviors. Young persons aged between 13 and 24 make up approximately 26% of all new infections in the world.
Obesity is another disease common in urban families. The condition is also addressed in the research by Bauer (2008). The disease is also a major concern since it increases one’s risk of acquiring other conditions, such as heart disease and stroke.
The research by Pender involved a review of the literature regarding studies conducted by both local and foreign scholars in the past. Nola Pender accepts the view that a patient plays an active role in initiating and promoting healthy behaviors (Friedman et al., 2002). Theorist argues that human behavior is coherent and reasonable. The current research heavily borrowed from the study by Friedman et al. (2008). The researchers argue that perceptions inform an individual’s decision to commit to a plan of action to promote health (Friedman et al., 2002). Consequently, one can conclude that a patient can be influenced to help in the prevention of diseases.
Results of the Literature Review
Pender model has been used in various studies focusing on public health and nursing in an urban setting. The research by Bauer (2008) found that preventable diseases, such as HIV/AIDS and obesity, are on the rise. The prevalence persists despite the efforts made by governments and other stakeholders to address the situation. The Pender model can be used to solve this problem.
Research Procedure and Analysis
The study by Bauer (2008) involved the use of a questionnaire to gather information on common infectious diseases affecting modern families. Interviews with local nurses were also carried out to provide insight on how health promotional model can be modified to help reduce the spread of diseases.
The study showed that many people viewed HIV/AIDS and diabetes as common diseases in modern times. Many nurses and health workers were optimistic that modifications of health promotion models would help reduce infection rates (Bauer, 2008).
Strengths and Weaknesses
Nurses dealing with obese and HIV positive patients are concerned with their client’s recovery and healing process. The Pender model is significant as it helps to motivate patients to initiate health-promoting behaviors (Bastable, 2006). However, many nurses fail to emphasize the need for the patient to develop behaviors that will help in preventing further spread of the infection. A case in point is a nurse who realizes that their HIV positive patient is not using protection while having sex. The practitioner can modify the theoretical approach to raise the patient’s awareness of the need to protect others from this particular mode of infection.
The framework can also be used for patients suffering from obesity. For example, it helps the nurse to gather information about the client. Such information touches on the patient’s previous lifestyle and family background. The practitioner can begin by using this information to educate the patient on efficient ways of regulating their weight since they have already shown the will to live (Bauer, 2008). Using the modified approach, the nurse will then educate the patient on the need to help those around them to lead healthy lifestyles to avoid contracting the same disease.
Implications for Nursing Practice
The application of the modified health promotion model would increase the workload for nurses (Bastable, 2006). For the procedure to be effective, nurses should undergo retraining to maximally exploit the new model (Bastable, 2006). However, the positive implications of this new study outweigh the negative effects. It is mainly because the study can be used to prevent the spread of a wide range of diseases.
To validate the findings of this study, future researchers should replicate it within a local setting. The move will bring out its weakness and identify ways to improve it. However, it is important to note that the application of the health promotion model in the prevention of the further spread of infections has several limitations. For example, it increases the risks of trauma. The reason is that bringing to the fore a patient’s past to influence future behavior and decisions may lead to a build-up of emotions (Bastable, 2006).
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Practical knowledge and application of theoretical frameworks regarding patient education can positively influence their lives. The current study illustrated how a modified theoretical approach can be applied in modern settings to prevent the spread of high-risk diseases.
Bastable, S. (2006). Essentials of patient education. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Bauer, L. (2008). Psychiatric and neurophysiological predictors of obesity in HIV/AIDS. Psychophysiology, 45(6), 1055-1063.
Friedman, M., Bowden, V., & Jones, E. (2002). Family nursing research theory and practice (5th ed.). New York: Prentice Hall Publishers.