The article is about a research that was carried out to evaluate a patient population of 89 German solders who underwent treatment for post traumatic stress disorder at the German armed forces hospital in Harm bug from 1998 to 2003. The study employed the method of patients being assigned nonrandom a treatment group who got eye movement desensitization as well as reprocessing and a comparison groups of general hospital treatment group who had relaxation training. A follow up was made concerning the information after 29 months. Us with the aid of event scale and the post- traumatic stress scale (ptss-10) as parameters of improvement, an assessment was made on trauma-linked symptoms.
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The article is based on the need for German psychiatrists to systematically address the impacts of psychological trauma in post- World War II for the first time. During 1996-2004, there were about 1,098 of deployment linked to psychological issues. 421 of these were post- traumatic stress disorders (PTSD).
An approach of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) was developed by Francine Shapiro has become a valuable therapy for trauma. The essence of the course of PTSD in various military patient groups was transferable to other population of soldiers, who are yet to be engaged in major combat operations. The other objective of the study was to identify the specific features a traumatic event could influence PTSP in the solders.
Questionnaires were used to gather follow-up data. All the patients were found to have sought treatment after being traumatized and in 3 to 12 months the tests that were carried out by well trained staff of the 89 solders 40 received EMDR treatment for in an important capacity which the other 49 received general treatment.
After an average of 29 months questionnaires were sent to the 89 solders results were observed and recorded. After a period of 29 months it was established that who underwent EMDR therapy had lower total stress scores on IES and PTSS-10.
Other than methodological problems encountered during the research the results obtained in the study showed that EMDR is a form of therapy with the ability to positively influence the long-term outcome of German psychiatric post traumatic stress disorder.
The study established that EMDR patients exhibited a significant improvement on the IES in relation to pretreatment scores (Zimmermann, 4). Differently patients who had relieved general hospital treatment like relaxation training among others had poorer scores on IES at long –term follow up. It was also established that those soldiers who had been confronted with death in the course of their traumatic treatment exhibited a poorly significant course compared to those whose trauma did not involve death.
Despite the various methodological limitations that the research encountered it was established that at long-term patients appeared to have a relatively good prognosis.
The author concludes that the implications of trauma cannot be kept at the same level over time when the duration of treatment is limited to few weeks (Zimmermann, 6). The researcher also suggests that other methods of trauma –linked psychotherapy ought to be pursued particularly for patients of this nature. Conclusively the author says that of most significance is efficiently therapy is the maintenance or improving the social competence and social relationships of patients.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
The title of the article describes the nature of the research but does not provide the results of the study. This leaves the title as more objective. The primary variables in this research are the effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy as well as specific trauma. All these are contained within the title of the article. The titles too include the kinds of people that participated in the research. The people involved were German soldiers.
In the abstract the aim of the research is clearly stated. The methodology of the study is well stated within the abstract. The abstract goes further to provide the end results obtained from the research.
The article does not however have a literature review section. It begins with a brief definition of and identification problem area. However the researcher does not provide definitions to key terms. The author gives a brief documentation of past records but with no mention on research carried.
The research was an experimental one based on the soldiers. Questionnaires observation and interviews methods were used to collect data. The author has articulated well the pertinent demographics of the sample studied. The sample picked was 89 soldiers, who were taken on the basis on past-recorded cases. The researcher indicated the reason for picking on the given sample.
The author /researcher have provided the items, questing as well as produces followed during the investigation. In both the variables observation and questionnaires were used to collect. As much multiple methods were used in certain appropriate instance to collect data by the researcher.
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For the sample size and the nature of the study, the instrumentation used was quite adequate. In certain instances when the sample size was divided in to two three or more groups, the researcher used the non-random method to assign there to particular subsets.
The treatment done to the solders and the procedures used are well detailed in the article. In most of the cases where treatment was to be administered, it was carried out by well-trained nurses and not the researcher. Other than treatment the conditions remained the same for all patients. The researcher has employed ethically and politically acceptable procedures.
In the results section they are in a cohesive comprehensible essay. The researcher makes reference to the hypothesis as well as the objective of the study. The tables are duly discussed and a narrative provided to better understanding of the section. In addition the presentation of the results provided detailed information on the study.
Within the first paragraph of the discussion, the writer offers a brief summary of the hypothesis and objective of the research. The researcher provides implications of the study. In the article the implication is positive one for the study. Suggestions for future research are specific as concerns variables procedures as well as assumptions to be made.
The researcher is specific about what has empirically been tested and those based on mere literature.
The topical issue is a major one within the German armed forces. The study report seeks to belts our understanding on the relationship between varying degrees of stress as well as other psychological factors.
In my view the research inspires has study as it conclusively states that more needs to be done to arrive at a definite conclusion. Therefore much research would be valuable in decision making before deployment of soldiers as well as when they are back home from war.
Peter Zimmerman, Karl H.B, Klaus Barret, Mario lanczik;long-term course of post –traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in German Soldiers:Efeects of inpatient Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy and Specific Trauma Characteristics in Patients with Non-Combat- Related PTSD. Military Medicine 2007.