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One of the most commonly used strategies for pre-reading is prediction. In this strategy, a teacher may use the title of the text selected for reading, illustrations, or new vocabulary and ask the learners to try to predict what the text is about. The teacher may direct their work using a set of questions concerning the content of the text.
Another widely applied strategy for pre-reading activities is based on the discussion of the author’s purpose. Practically, the learners could use the information offered in the title of the text and the vocabulary in order to explain the perceived intention of the author, the message he or she attempted to communicate, and the purpose for which the text was written.
In this regard, basic fluency could be improved with the help of visual materials that support the viewers’ understanding of the topic and content of the reading, activate visual literacy skills, and provide guidance for the discussion.
It is important for learners to hear the correct pronunciation of new words. In that way, it is critical that the teacher reads new vocabulary aloud prior to initiating activities with the words in it. This activity is directed at the improvement of the learners’ vocabulary by means of listening to how the new words are pronounced correctly (Pappalardo, 2011).
In addition, the strategies focused on the development of the learners’ vocabulary can be based on the prediction exercise used for pre-reading. It is possible to expand this strategy and include vocabulary practices. For example, using the listed new words for the selected reading, the learners could be asked to name two or three synonyms for each of the new words and identify the words that rhyme with them.
Basic fluency in vocabulary is improved through the children’s speaking practice, including sophisticated and new words. Differently put, for better fluency, it is critical to familiarize the learners with vocabulary by means of asking to make up compound sentences with each of the new words.
In guided reading, one of the major objectives of the teacher is to select the books appropriate to the group of readers and their level of literacy. Further, the reading activity needs to be supported. One way to support it is to introduce a story prior to the reading, establish the passages that would serve as milestones, and initiate brief interactions about the content after the readers reach each of such passages in the text.
Another strategy is to turn the readers’ focus on the words used in the text and what they reflect. For example, the use of certain words in the direct speech of different characters may indicate their personalities or moods.
For better fluency, guided reading needs to be accompanied by a significant portion of the discussion, an introduction, guiding questions, and interactions focusing on the content of the selected text.
Group work can be carried out in smaller or larger groups. For instance, having read a text, the learners can be asked a question. After forming their opinions, they can be divided into groups of two to discuss their points of view (the University of Waterloo, n.d.).
Also, the entire class can be divided into two large groups to work on group projects, such as re-enacting different scenes from the text.
Fluency, in this form of work, can be achieved by means of frequent collaborative practices and tasks so that the learners grasp the concept of work in teams and their organization.
Pappalardo, G. (2011). Techniques for teaching vocabulary to elementary students. Web.
University of Waterloo. (n.d.). Group work in the classroom: types of small groups. Web.