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Problems of Reading and Literacy Research Paper

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Updated: Dec 20th, 2019


The proceeding is a review of ten current articles on reading and literacy. The research paper contains an introduction, review of the articles and a conclusion which summarizes the articles. The paper contains a detailed definition of reading and literacy and how the two interrelate.

The ten summarized articles focus on how various factors affect literacy and reading across the society. Several corrective measures are proposed in some articles on how to cope up with the challenges of literacy. It is realized that deficiency in literacy is common to all age groups and segments of the community.


The two terms, literacy and reading, have been used interchangeably in some settings. Literacy is described as one’s ability to read and consequently write. In depth, it refers to the ability to recognize, comprehend, infer, craft, commune, work out and use written and printed materials connected with changeable contexts.

Reading is the art of decoding and cognition of symbols with an aim of constructing or deriving a meaning. It also refers to the technique of language acquisition for communication and for sharing ideas. Reading requires a continuous process for proper development and fine-tuning so as to gain proficiency in the act.

Summary of Articles

Beverly’s article outlines the use of phone text messaging among British children especially the abbreviations and language used. Texting has no negative effect on the literacy or language development as being speculated. Language development depends on the age at which the child receives mobile phones.

Those who posses phones at an early age do many texting, thus developing literacy, as opposed to their fellows who do not have phones. Acquisition of texting knowledge is significant in the development of literacy profile in a child (Beverly & Clare, 2009). The ability to select and use various words and when to use them gives children metalinguistic and linguistic acquaintance.

It was evident that text messaging does not have any negative impact on the reading and literacy. Texting instead increase the pace at which the two can be acquired and internalized. In as much as this mode increases of learning, the question remains on how text messaging among the preteens affects their grammar.

The second article explores the long-term impacts of opting for early comprehension interventions. Children who do not know how to read in their year one in school will continue to fall behind their peers, thus requiring the need for recovery reading and phonological training are recommended. The survey explored how different models of interventions may be effective in children with difficulties in reading.

The two interventions include recovery reading and explicit phonological training. It is clear that the two interventions had significant improvement in a child’s reading in the medium and short term. Recovery reading had more impact than phonological training though the later had a strong impact in improving the spelling.

Children who read not only learn letters and words but also learn how to use them in the text (Jane & Kathy, 2007). Those who are able to pas this stage usually gain independence in reading and are able to recognize and correct mistakes on their own.

The lessons of reading recovery enable children to become self-mentor. It should be realized that the two methods do not have long-term effects; therefore, other tactics like child enjoyment, home encouragement are critical in ensuring improvement in reading among children.

Christine and others examined how social network sites (SNSs) affect the lives of teenagers in high school in terms of reading, literacy and the social life. The current technologies like wikis, blogs, online games; social networking and so on have changed literacy. The technology changes how people communicate information, compose, listen, view, write and read.

Networking sites creates relationships, accomplish social education functions and discovers novel communiqué and imaginative endeavors. In overall, the use of social sites among students exhibit new literacy and reading practices. SNSs provide opportunities for the young people to learn different things online, and from friends thus becoming excellent readers (Christine & Beth, 2009).

This fourth article entails the experiences students show when writing and reading visual essays, which make use of images as opposed to texts. It explores how non restriction to words may improve one’s ability to gain skills in literacy work. The use of other elements of design such as audio, gestures, texts, and video equally improve a person’s ability to become a competent reader.

The article covers the how, what and when of the visual essays, experiences and how to teach them to improve reading and literacy (Janette & Sarah, 2010). The pictures, lyrics and words used in visual essay enable the viewer to draw a conclusion of what the producer or the author implies. People will be so wiling to pay attention to video than they do to essays.

This means that the use of visual elements in communicating a point will have an enormous impact because people are lazy in reading, and will want to interpret what the visual element is about. The article concluded that students using visual essays are able to develop essay skills fast. The choice of appropriate visual essay for different groups is a challenge.

Ruthanne and Tobin investigated what teachers can use to cope up with varying needs of the students to learn in Grade 2/3 classrooms. Teachers are aware of the discrepancy in literacy needs of the students, but many do not know how to offer different varieties to benefit all the students (Ruthanne & Alison, 2008).

Responsive literacy, literacy instructions and various organizational formats are the underpinning factors that bring the variations in literacy delivery. The overall goal of the paper was to help teachers develop a framework for combating instructional differentiations. It is also aimed at providing instructors and teachers with strategies of meeting literacy needs of diverse students.

The study made use of a case study design using qualitative research to explore educational phenomenon in a genuine life circumstances. Some of the techniques found and proposed for increasing literacy in a diverse situation include differentiated instructions and appropriate response to the at-risk students during normal classrooms.

Differentiated instructions assist students in understanding and content application in literacy learning, and to choose the best option among different learning experiences. Other strategies include shared writing and reading, guided reading and setting up literacy centers with excellent texts.

The sixth peer review article explores how teachers can improve their knowledge and experience. This is anticipated to help children develop enthusiasm and motivation towards reading among the less fortunate in literacy. Teachers should be readers for themselves thus developing and sharing experiences, acknowledging families, community, and considering reading like pleasure (Teresa et al,. 2009).

The research revealed that personal engagements enable them to recognize the nature of reading and what is entailed of being a reader, hence acting as reading models for their students. The process permits teachers to widen the dexterity of teaching for pedagogic understanding and subject knowledge mutually sanction professional performance.

When teachers gain such a vast experience in reading, they are able to understand the reading and literacy needs of children in class. Teachers should, therefore, be encouraged to do inclusive and objective reading both at primary and secondary level so as to cope up with the changing needs of the students.

This article analyses how some controlled situations can improve reading and literacy among children and pupils. The program is called Head Start, a research-based development informed, which an enriched intervention is focusing on socio-emotional abilities, literacy skills and language development.

It involves teachers using research-based instructional equipment and teaching modes whose aim was to improve child talent attainment. The program contains a detailed curriculum for the teachers equipped with exemplary teaching practices (Bierman, K. et al, 2008).

Children in the intervention program had improvement in literacy and reading. Properly structured curriculum and improved teaching techniques can improve performance in children towards achieving literacy.

The eighth article is about literacy patterns among the children who are excellent in mathematics but have learning difficulties. Lack of phonological abilities is common in children with reading difficulties. This article eases the information processing speed, auditory, visual and memory analysis.

The ability of a person to tackle mathematics appropriately means that the person is creative, skilful and committed in completing the tasks. One of the difficulties children face is dyslexia which is a neurological complication and is constitutional in derivation (Anies, 2010)

It presents with difficulties in spelling, written language and reading. Visual dyslexia pupils have visual problems while auditory dyslexia people have hearing problems. Children with difficulties experience difficulties in reading and writing, even though they are excellent in mathematics.

Cathy Burnett explores the available understanding on the impacts of technology on literacy in the classroom. It employed the Green’s distinction on critical, cultural and operational scope of primary literacy.

Print media is highly supported by its legacy and policies, but new technologies are preferred to supplement it. People should be able to understand what it entails like the usage, values, interactions and processes for successful applications in primary class literacy (Cathy, 2009).

This last review focuses on adult literacy in a health care setting and its implications. Health literacy is a crucial factor that affects the communication in the process of cancer prognosis, diagnosis and treatment among the adults. The study asserts that one out of five adults in America lack the obligatory literacy to communicate effectively in the society.

It is observed that inadequate literacy complicate matters in the health facilities, hence leading to inappropriate decisions in cancer centers. Clients possessing poor health literacy present problems both in written and spoken communication. It is also cumbersome to identify people with literacy deficiency because some hide it to their family members and to the physicians (Terry, 2006).

The problem manifests mostly when the consent is required from the patient since they cannot understand the meaning of the paper. It is, therefore, recommended that adults with a deficiency in literacy be open to the service providers in all sectors, and literacy improvement centers be set up so that adults can improve their standards of literacy.


It is with no doubt that problems of reading and literacy are prevalent in the society. Researches have been conducted to find solutions to some of these crosscutting issues. Literacy reviews majorly touch on pre-teenage and teenagers because this is the age that experiences difficulties in literacy.

It is evident that the learning environment and health status of a person affects the literacy level of a person. Overall literacy and reading, which are used interchangeably, are affected by sociocultural factors in the society.


Anies, A. (2010). Perceptual skills and Arabic literacy patterns for mathematically gifted children with specific learning difficulties, British Journal of Special Education · Volume 37 · Number 1, pp 26-37. 3

Beverly, P. Clare, W. (2009). Exploring Relationships between Traditional and New Media Literacies: British Preteen Texters at School. Journal of Computer- Mediated Communication 14, pp 1108–1129.

Bierman, K. et al., (2008). Promoting Academic and Social-Emotional SchoolReadiness: The Head Start REDI Program, Child Development, Vol. 79, No.6, pp 1802 – 1817.

Cathy, B. (2009). Research into literacy and technology in primary classrooms: an exploration of understandings generated by recent studies, Journal of Research In Reading, Vol. 32, Issue. 1, pp 22–37.

Christine, G. & Beth, R. (2009). Old Communication, New Literacies: Social Network Sites as Social Learning Resources. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 14, pp 1130–1161.

Jane, H. & Kathy, S. (2007). Long-term outcomes of early reading intervention. Journal Of Research in Reading.Vol.30, Issue 3, pp 227–24.

Janette, H. & Sarah, T. (2010). Engaging students through new Literacies: the good, bad and curriculum of visual essays. Journal for English in Education, Vol. 44 No. 1, pp 5-23.

Ruthanne, T. & Alison, M. (2008). Accommodating differences: variations in Differentiated literacy instruction in Grade 2/3 classrooms. Literacy, Vol. 42, No. 1.

Teresa, C. et al., (2009). Teachers as readers: building communities of readers, Literacy, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp 11-18.

Terry, C. (2006). Health Literacy and Cancer Communication. Cancer Journal for Clinicians Vol. 76, Issue 20. pp 134-149.

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