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Preparation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Hydrolysates Essay

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Updated: May 11th, 2021

1. What is the research question the author(s) is trying to answer? In the article, there is no research question the authors try to answer. They do not pose any questions, as well as they do not rely on any questions that could be possibly developed in past studies. Through the lines in the introductory part, the statements that no data on antioxidant properties of individual peptides after hydrolysis is available, or that new biological activities of peptides and proteins have been recently discovered are given.

Therefore, it is possible to suggest that the authors want to raise such questions as for why researchers do not focus on the chosen aspects, or what can be done to contribute to discussions in the field of dietary supplementation and antioxidants. Finally, the idea to question the necessity of the investigation for human-taken protein use can be raised.

2. What is the purpose of the article? Is it clearly described? The purpose of the current article is clearly described in its abstract and the end of the introductory part. The authors underline that their goal is to investigate different antioxidant properties that can be inherent to peptides. One of the important requirements is to make sure that these peptides have to be obtained from whey proteins during the process of enzymatic hydrolysis as this method can allow further use of these proteins in different contexts.

To prove this purpose, the authors find it necessary to explain the process of properties’ analysis in details. First, they plan to hydrolyse pure whey proteins with the help of several digestive and microbial proteases. Then, they expect to use the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)-FL approach to check the activities of hydrolysates. Finally, the isolation of peptide fractions can be effective for spectrometry and the evaluation of peptide sequences.

3. Is the literature review comprehensive and current? The authors do not find it necessary to develop a separate Literature Review section that turns out to be a serious shortage of the study. Several important definitions of the main concepts are given using the sources that were appropriate for that publishing period (meaning that peer-reviewed articles were published during the last ten years). Several studies are used to identify the risks associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Then, several sources help to explain the worth of antioxidant defence properties and activities in plants and animals. Finally, the literature review promotes understanding of the ORAC approach to measuring the qualities of antioxidant activities. Still, despite the presence of these definitions, many readers with the lack of background knowledge on this topic can find this text complicated.
4. Are major issues and concepts related to the question identified and clearly defined? Although the research question is absent in the article, the authors succeed in introducing several major concepts and issues. For example, brief explanations of ROS and ORAC are given. ROC is defined as the main reason for oxidative stress that leads to the body’s overload, the inability to respond to dangerous cells’ appearance, and overall damage of cellular components. The ORAC method is improved by the use of fluorescein. Antioxidant enzymes and endogenous antioxidants are discussed as the main components of the defence system of the body. Finally, α-lactalbumin and β–lactoglobulin are whey proteins that represent high value for nutritional and biological functions. Their investigation turns out to be an important part of the current study.
5. Is information missing that is needed to answer the question posed by the author(s)? Due to the absence of a clearly defined research question, missing information has to be evaluated through the prism of the already mentioned research goals and methods chosen by the authors. For example, it is expected to use the ORAC-FL approach to promote hydrolysate. Although the authors explain it as one of the possible methods to scavenge biological activities, there is a lack of description of this process. The reader should get a clear idea of how to develop this process, what outcomes may be expected, and what preparations are needed.

Another unclear aspect touches upon RP-HPLC, also known as tandem mass spectrometry for fractioning of antioxidant hydrolysates. Information about this method is terribly missing in the article that makes the reader surf the web and enlarges his/her knowledge about its peculiarities, benefits, and shortages. Finally, there are many references to antioxidant properties in the article. However, the authors do not give enough details for the reader to understand what these properties are all about or recognise some examples.

6. How strong is the study’s level of evidence? The study’s level of evidence is determined by the methods that the authors choose for their research. In this case, the investigation consists of several stages, including hydrolysis, ORAC assay, spectrometry, online RP-HPLC analysis, and peptide synthesis. All of them are significant parts of a laboratory experiment that turns out to be one of the lowest types of evidence. Although the authors use several credible studies to support their results and discuss their achievements, almost all of them are based on laboratory experiments with a low level of evidence and the inability to understand the outcomes of the decisions made during the working process.
7. What recommendations would you give to improve the study? As a rule, it is easy to give some recommendations to the work that has already been made, focusing on evident shortages and explaining new perspectives. Still, it is necessary to underline that this article was one of the first attempts when the antioxidant properties were obtained from whey proteins as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis. Therefore, instead of discovering new ways to improve the already done project, it is better to concentrate on the methods that can help make this study comprehensible to all readers. Clear definitions and examples, as well as past discoveries and real-life clinical cases, are possible recommendations for this study. The authors made a serious contribution to the fields of biology, chemistry, and medicine, and the task is to make it available to all readers.
8. What separate studies should be done in future to advance this research area? The authors themselves recommend investigating antioxidant antigenicity before future steps to involve humans in the study are made. The oxidation reaction may depend on the quality and amount of food processes. Therefore, it is possible to use different animals as the sources of whey proteins. Finally, the authors use two types of proteins for this experiment, and the advancement of the chosen research area can include the attention to other proteins from different sources.
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IvyPanda. (2021) 'Preparation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Hydrolysates'. 11 May.

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