Innovation, Product and Service Design
Services can be described as variable, intangible and deliverable over space and time. Words alone can be used to refer to them, and hence resulting in the immense over simplification and incompleteness. The service concept can be interpreted and specified by the use of a variety if biases.
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Essentially, the new product early stages of development which is commonly known as the fuzzy front end are known to be problematic for service innovation (Trott 33). This is because they characteristically involve decision-making and imprecise processes. Marketing involves presentation of relationships, activities and interdependence of the process of service in a precise and objective manner.
General systems theory
General systems theory (GST) is among the widely acceptable intellectual perspectives of organization theories. It has been shaped by many proponents such as: Ashby, 1952; Boulding, 1956; Miller, 1978; and Bertalanffy, 1972. This theory originates from the holistic Aristotelian worldview that the sum of its parts is less than the whole.
The major goal of GST is to bring forth generalized phenomena principles as well as deliberate disciplines whose objective is to enhance the unity of factors in an organization.
As social systems, organizations are qualitatively and quantitatively different from living cells or other concrete physical systems. The ultimate goal of the multilevel perspective is not to come up with principles that are general to other types of systems.
The major goal of the multilevel perspective in organizational theory is to identify principles that bring forth a more integrated understanding of phenomena that unfold across levels in organizations.
Formative theory development
Early efforts to conceptualize and study organizations formed their bases in the Interactionists concept, and focused on coming up with an organizational climate (Lewin 87). Interactionists’ perspective view behavior as a product of both the individual and situation, the combined effect of both is broadly felt. In this case, behavior is seen a combined product of individual-difference and contextual effects.
The standpoint of interactionists has a considerable implication on organizational study. It is significantly shaping research on climate (Lewin, Lippitt, and White 54). It continues to add impact through the research on person’s organizational fit.
With the development of organizational psychology as a separate sub discipline in the 1950s, organizational climate emerged as a pivot element for understanding organizational effectiveness. Researchers have described climate as a representation of the organizational stimuli or what a number referred to as environmental characteristics, expected to affect individual behavior and attitudes.
The emergent process is largely affected by the nature of social psychological interactions and can thus vary depending on the phenomenon. This calls for the use of the alternative theoretical framework. An organization often has a direct effect on the social behavior of its individual employees. For instance, the organization culture dictates the accepted patterns of employee interaction with one another and work behavior.
This could be how officially employees address one another, or the extent to which employees interrogate their seniors’ directives. The concept of organizational culture if particularly broad and inclusive, serves to summarize the common behaviors, traits and organizational members values.
Characteristics of design process
Organizations that proved to be successful in providing new services normally try to maintain their service development processes stable. A well designed service that is pleasing to experience can provide the firm with a key point of differentiation from competitors.
A smoothly delivered service with a positive outcome is more likely to result in favorable service quality and brand image evaluations, which both have influence on customer loyalty. Recurrent service quality problems are often the result of the poor design.
As the development of a new service process nears design implementation, the original idea that relates to the service should be enhanced to appear as a more developed idea, to the prospective employees and customers. Responsibilities and roles of service providers and customers are also spelt out.
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A major success leader at this juncture is the ability to observe service process and describe them such that the customers, managers and employees can have a good understanding of the services and their delivery of co-creation roles.
Importance of intellectual property
Most people in society create and use intellectual property. In essence, international as well as national rules which are referred to as intellectual rights of property are the means of protections being referred to as intellectual property. New product development involves provision of financing and incentives for creation and innovation, which goes a long way to improve economic, cultural and social status.
Protection for intellectual property also runs the production and distribution of a variety of services and goods as well as knowledge. Patenting ideas, design registration, and trade marking add value for consumers and thus offer an assurance of quality and source.
Such results in the economic growth as innovation, technical development and cultural diversity are encouraged as a part of a wider policy framework. When appropriately protected, intellectual property rights can also be the key tools for the alleviation of poverty through trade.
Lewin, Kurt, Ronald, Lippitt, and Race White. ‘‘Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates.” Journal of Social Psychology 10 (1939): 271- 299. Print.
Lewin, Kurt. Field theory in the social sciences. New York: HarperCollins, 1951. Print.
Trott, Paul. Innovation management and new product development. Harlow: Prentice Hall, 2005. Print.