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Program outcomes in a non-profit organization serving at risk youth in an urban metropolitan area Thesis


Introduction

Education is a bridge for linking all opportunities for development. In many of the areas of Washington D.C. a good education is vital. However, a report in 2000 stated that more than half the jobs in the District of Columbia were held by employees with a bachelor’s degree or higher, almost twice the national average or higher (Hamilton, 2004).

Many studies have proven, for every 100 students who enter 9th grade in D.C. Public Schools and D.C. Public Charter Schools:

  • 43 graduated from high school in the District within five years
  • 29 Enroll in postsecondary educational programs within 18 months of graduating high school
  • 8 attain a postsecondary degree within five years of enrolling in college

(Case Study from Double the Numbers; Gates Foundation)

The minority in Washington D.C. faces incredible odds of surviving continuing their education and succeeding. To address these educational woes, Washington D.C. has a large quantity of non-profit organizations that assist in the efforts of improving the success rates of D.C. Public and Public Charter School students (Fisher, 2001).

This case study will focus on “Program Outcomes in a Non-Profit Organization Serving at Risk Youth in an Urban Metropolitan Area” This case study will solely focus on two entities a community action agency and a leading educational institution collaborating their efforts to address the social and academic issues intended for the students whom resides in the Washington D.C.’s Ward 8 community.

In addition this study will concentrate on proper result oriented development and implementation of program created by the nonprofit organization (Hamilton, 2004).

The minority youth in Washington D.C. faces incredible odds of surviving, continuing their education and succeeding.

The ward 8 community leads in nearly every harmful statistical category in Washington D.C.; coupled with living in low income communities that are beleaguered by violence and street crime, many of the youth, when left without caring adults to support their educational and career endeavors, are prone to engage in sex, drugs, and violence. (Hanushek, 2001)

A review of the 2008 NCLB Data Report indicates that (78%) of students residing in Ward 8 failed to meet the proficiency levels in reading and math. Ward 8 is known to have the highest rate of illiteracy and dropouts among all Wards of District of Columbia. The high school drop-out rate among 16-19 year-olds residing in Ward 8 is 16%, which is substantially higher than the district average of 10.1% (Hamilton, 2004).

Some recent studies show that out of school time programs are a valuable tool for increasing school engagement and that those programs that have the most impact have clear programming goals as well as on-going professional development; the American Youth Policy Forum’s review of 50 program and practice evaluations suggest that:

  • Community Service and work-based learning
  • High standards and expectations of youth
  • High quality implementation
  • Parent participation
  • Caring adults

Are all necessary building blocks for successful, impactful, high-quality youth programs (Hamilton, 2004).

Background

The background of the studies reveals that, overall Washington D.C. has a 20% poverty rate; however that rate increases in different section of the city. According to10th Annual Fact Book 2003 in the District of Columbia Every Kid Counts in Ward 7 the poverty rate is 24.9% and in Ward 8 the poverty level is at an astounding 36%.

According to the Ward 8 Economic Development Resource Guide, there are approximately twenty-five thousand households in Ward 8, with 20% of the household reporting married couples. The Washington by the Numbers Report indicates that 8% of the residents of Ward 8 are college graduates and the median household income for Ward 8 is roughly $26,145.

The Ward 8 Comprehensive Housing Analysis of Washington D.C. reports states that there are 8,349 residents in Congress Heights with a median household income of $32,511 and 65% of the households are renters. (Hanushek, 2002)

The Community Agency was established to provide programs that are designed expressly to serve Washington D.C.’s low-income residents. Operating a wide range of comprehensive programs this design is suppose to enhance the lives of Washington D.C. residents by providing training, support, social service, guidance, education, and referrals so that the residents can take control of their lives.

The Community Agency continues this longstanding tradition of service by focusing on the current existing needs by providing direct services to families who face a myriad of economic, social and emotional struggles (Fisher, 2001.

The Community Agency established a partnership with a well recognized leading educational institution to address some of the academic needs and family management issues in the Ward 8 community. The partnership was supposed to develop a six-year higher education preparation and cultural enrichment project.

The primary purpose, as well as objective of this particular project, was to impart a complete enriched multi-year academic and family support to promote post-secondary education attendance and self-sufficiency for program participants.

The intent of this program is to impart direction, advocacy and support to all of the lower-income households as well as others who are eligible residents of Washington D.C. towards to assist at risk youth in accomplishing proper self-determination and self-sufficiency towards improvement of quality of the life of these local community.

The student-based program supposed to engage students in a robust learning experience that will foster higher education, thereby assisting them in “Breaking the Cycle of Poverty in their Families.” (Fielden, 2004)

The expected outcomes of this student-based program are to prepare participating students with academic and social skills that will allow them to pass local and federal standardized exams, to be promoted, graduate high school, attend and excel post-secondary education (Earthman, 2004).

Purpose of the Study

As education is a crucial factor for the quality of the life of an individual and, the quality of the growth of an economy. Moreover, the level of education beyond the elementary stage matters, especially in the context of emerging knowledge-based society.

Elementary education lays educational foundation in an individual and necessary skills, but the changing technology all over the world demands the education levels beyond the elementary level. Not only the secondary and higher secondary levels improve further knowledge base and basic skills but also lays base for the vocational training courses specialized to form specific skills that are demanded in the labor market or in the industry.

Universalization and need of elementary education was attained long back in most of the countries. Further, it is felt that there is dirt of universalized the secondary and higher secondary education in the recent times.

But most of the developing countries are still shortfall of achieving the goal, universalization elementary education. Nevertheless, the rate of improvement in the elementary education during the last two decades in these countries promises that the goal of universalized elementary education will be achieved very soon (Earthman, 2002).

This case study is to provide insight about the affects of underdeveloped programs that are sponsored by non-profit organization within the communities they serve. This thesis basically intended for two well-known organizations in Washington DC, however for time purposes now it open to just use the effectiveness of underdeveloped programs in non-profit organization and the affects in low-income communities.

This case study will solely focus on two entities a community action agency and a leading educational institution collaborating their efforts to address the social and academic issues intended for the students whom resides in the Washington DC’s Ward 8 community. Apart from this major focus will concentrate on proper result-oriented development and implementation of program created by the nonprofit organization.

However Pain area includes almost Washington D.C. has a 20% poverty rate, which varies in a different section of the city. For example, Ward 7 in Washington D.C. the poverty rate is 24.9% and on the other hand Ward 8 the poverty level is at an astounding 36% (Duke, 2001).

Findings from the secondary research include that Ward 8 in Washington D.C. comprises of 25000 households of out of which 25 % married couples.

The role of NPO / Community Agency was focused on to establish and provide programs that are designed expressly to serve Washington DC’s low-income residents as well as providing training, support, social service, guidance, education, and referrals so that the residents can take control of their lives.

The NPO/Community Agency continues this longstanding tradition of service by focusing on the current existing needs by providing direct services to families who face a myriad of economic, social and emotional struggles. The NPO/Community Agency established a partnership with a well recognized leading educational institution to address some of the academic needs and family management issues in the Ward 8 community.

The partnership was supposed to develop a six-year higher education preparation and cultural enrichment project. The main purpose, as well as objective of this particular project, was to impart a complete enriched multi-year academic and family support to promote post-secondary education attendance and self-sufficiency for program participants.

The intent of this program is to impart direction, advocacy and support to all of lower-income households as well as others who are eligible residents of Washington D.C. towards to assist at risk youth in accomplishing proper self-determination and self-sufficiency towards improvement of quality of the life of these local community (Dudek, 2000).

Thus the purpose of study is to concentrate on some Community Agency, which focuses on academic needs and family management issues in the Ward 8 community. As purpose of the project was to provide a complete enriched multi-year academic and family support to promote post-secondary education attendance and self-sufficiency for program participants!

The major aim was to impart direction, advocacy and support to all of lower-income households as well as others who are eligible residents of Washington D.C. towards to assist at risk youth in accomplishing proper self-determination and self-sufficiency towards improvement of quality of the life of these local community.

The student-based program supposed to engage students in a robust learning experience that will foster higher education, thereby assisting them in “Breaking the Cycle of Poverty in their Families.”

The purpose of the study is to prepare participating students with academic and social skills that will allow them to pass local and federal standardized exams, to be promoted, graduate high school, attend and excel post-secondary education. However, the special emphasis will be on program outcomes in a non-profit organization serving at risk youth in an urban metropolitan area (Buckley, 2003).

Problem Statement

The pain area and problem statement include almost Washington D.C. has a 20% poverty rate, which varies in different sections of the city. For example, Ward 7 in Washington D.C. the poverty rate is 24.9% and on the other hand Ward 8 the poverty level is at an astounding 36% (Buckley, 2003).

As the vision of education focused projects is to make good quality education available, accessible and affordable to all young persons (Bryant, 2004). As with this vision in mind, the program objectives are still not met in order to meet the following program objectives:

  1. Students will demonstrate increased knowledge in reading and language arts.
  2. Students will demonstrate increased knowledge in mathematics.
  3. Students will learn and develop life skills.
  4. Students will foster a greater sense of self, school, and community through academic achievement and community service.
  5. Students and families will become aware of community resources and services.
  6. Parents/Guardians will have increased knowledge of money management skills
  7. Parents/Guardians will have increased knowledge of family management skills (Buckley, 2003).

The intent is to prepare students to do extremely well in post-secondary education, while providing sound skills that will help them compete in the Global Economy. For non-profit organizations, employees, users, public, customers, regulators, professionals, funders, as well as government all have a legitimate interest, thus making the rationale for organizational program failure multifaceted.

Effective community programs are vital for the existence of Community Action Public Service Non-Profit Organizations. There have been many debates about the affect these programs has on the community as a whole. What happens to the community once these programs fail?

Who is the blame? What are the causes? Without the established metrics of profitable organizations the performance of non-profits programs such as a long term “College Preparatory” program is difficult to gauge because of factors such as bureaucracy direction, regulation, and performance indicators (Bryant, 2004).

There were several challenges with launching the College Preparatory Program. A major challenge was missing several key deadlines. In addition to the missing deadlines staff was also hampered in recruiting students because of application delivered towards the schools over a month after the scheduled date. Final applications were not delivered to the schools until the week of May 8th as oppose to April 6th.

This delay caused the College Preparatory Program Applications to arrive at the schools during Standardized Testing. Most schools were focused on administering the Standardized Test and not on distributing the application to students. Some schools never distributed the applications to students, thus, leaving a small pool of students to apply for acceptance into the program (Bosch, 2003).

The delay in distributing the College Preparatory Program Applications prevented the parent information session to occur. Therefore, few parents had full knowledge of the program and program offerings until June 13, 2009, at the parent orientation, which occurred two (2) days before the start of camp.

Although efforts were made through attending community events, there was not any direct information presented to parents to inform them of the formation and value of the program (Bosch, 2003).

The timing of hiring staff also presented a challenge. In fact, the delay in hiring prevented the College Preparatory Program staff from participating in key meetings that were scheduled for March and April.

The delay in staff hiring made it difficult for the College Preparatory Program staff to grasp College Preparatory Program be active participants in recruitment and student interviews. The delay in staff hiring hindered the proper orientation and dissemination of roles and responsibilities (Bosch, 2002).

The curriculum was not developed until a few days before the start of camp. Therefore, key staff from the Community Action Agency and the partnering Educational Institution did not have the time to properly dissect the curriculum before it was implemented. Due to the delay in developing the curriculum programs, activities, and lesson plans were not as fluid as they could have been.

Although both boys and girls followed the same “Theme Weeks” the girls did not have nearly the same level of engagement as the boys. The instructors for the girl’s sessions were not the same instructors as the boy’s session; therefore, they did not have any input into the curriculum nor did they have time to be trained on the curriculum.

The girls were not privileged to attend as many field trips as the boys, nor was the (fun/adventure quality) of trips the same for both the girls and the boys. It was not made clear to students, parents or school administrators prior to the summer camp if the curriculum met DCPS Standards to satisfy summer school obligations of some of the students embark (Bosch, 2002).

Theoretical Framework

As the major issues include that almost Washington D.C. has a 20% poverty rate, which varies in different sections of the city. For example, Ward 7 in Washington D.C. the poverty rate is 24.9% and on the other hand Ward 8 the poverty level is at an astounding 36%. Secondary findings include Ward 8 in Washington D.C. comprises of 25000 households of out of which 25 % married couples(Bosch, 2002).

The role of NPO / Community Agency was focused on to establish and provide programs that are designed expressly to serve Washington DC’s low-income residents as well as providing training, support, social service, guidance, education, and referrals so that the residents can take control of their lives.

The NPO/Community Agency continues this longstanding tradition of service by focusing on the current existing needs by providing direct services to families who face a myriad of economic, social and emotional struggles (Scott-Webber, 2004).

As the NPO/Community Agency established a partnership with a well recognized leading educational institution to address some of the academic needs and family management issues in the Ward 8 community. The partnership was supposed to develop a six-year higher education preparation and cultural enrichment project.

The main purpose, as well as objective of this particular project, was to impart a complete enriched multi-year academic and family support to promote post-secondary education attendance and self-sufficiency for program participants.

The intent of this program is to impart direction, advocacy and support to all of lower-income households as well as others who are eligible residents of Washington D.C. towards to assist at risk youth in accomplishing proper self-determination and self-sufficiency towards improvement of quality of the life of these local community (Schneider, 2002).

There were four components to this student based project, and they go as follows: five-week gender based summer camp program, an after-school component, Saturdays session at the partner university (during the school year), and Family Alliance.

These components ensure a continuum of concentrated care for the student-based program participants and their families for the next six years. This holistic approach takes the youth and families’ entire lives into account rather than isolating students’ academic needs from their basic and family needs (Rivkin, 2001).

The College Preparatory Program will provide academic, social, and recreation enrichment to 40-50 students. The program will start with students entering the seventh grade and provide a continuum of services until the end of their senior year in high school.

The students will participate in academic, social, and recreational programs Monday-Thursdays from 3:30 pm-6:30 pm (except Holidays). As a part of the after-school program a partnership with the DCPS Out of School-Time Office was developed. The Out of School-Time Office will supply tutors for College Preparatory Program Hour.

College Preparatory Program Hour is a tutorial program conducted by DCPS teachers that provide academic support to students for one hour after school to build and enhance skills specifically in reading, writing, and mathematics. In addition, the College Preparatory Program will provide academic support at a minimum of one Saturday per month on the National educational institution campus (Machin, 2003).

Students will receive academic support in reading, math, science, and writing skills. The partnership with National educational institution will allow students the opportunity to spend at least one week a month and four-six weeks during the summer at a tier-one academic institution.

Incorporated into the College Preparatory Program are quarterly parent workshops that will provide parent education training to cover a variety of topics (Lyons, 2001). The College Preparatory Program will employ case managers who will work closely with teachers, counselors, and school administrators to provide optimal services to the students enrolled in the program.

It is proposed that the case managers be housed within the schools to offer daily access to the students and immediate assistance when needed. Additionally, the case managers will have regular contact with the parent or guardian of the students enrolled in the program.

In extend to after school programs the College Preparatory Program will include:

The Summer Campus

During the summer, the youth will attend the College Preparatory Program on the National educational institution’s campus every day for up to five weeks. The coursework likely to concentrate on improving and enhancing the youths’ skills in English, math, science, Spanish and subjects.

Saturdays at the National Educational Institution Campus

Beginning in the seventh grade and continuing through the 12th grade, participants attend Saturday College Preparatory Program classes from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. to work on the core subjects of English, math and Spanish. Once a month, sessions will be held at the National educational institution campus

Family Alliance

One of the key features of the College Preparatory Program is a holistic approach to family involvement. Through the use of the Village Project concept, and the National educational institution it should be able to address the academic needs of youth and the employment, health and adult education needs of their parents.

This is critical because to compartmentalize the youth’s growth and educational needs from the needs of their family can lead to isolation and result in the youth’s disengaging due to a lack of family support.

Case management, quarterly family activities and workshops will serve to strengthen family relationships; introduce parents/guardians to the higher education opportunities for their children and provide them with social and academic support as needed (Lawson, 1997).

The student-based program has recruited students from elementary and middle schools in the Ward 8 community. Students are supposed to be selected through an application process, interview and recommendations from school counselors and/or school administrators.

A total of forty 7th grade students (20 boys and 20 girls) will be selected to participate and will continue their participation through 12th grade graduation (Krueger, 2002).

A Program Theory is concerned with understanding the effects expected of a program. It consists of a set of statements that describe a particular program, explain why, how, and under what conditions the program effects occur, predict the outcomes of the program, and specify what needs to be done to bring about the desired program effects.

A Program Theory is a combination of descriptive, explanatory and prescriptive, practice-oriented theories ((Krueger, 2002).

The descriptive component of a Program Theory defines the presenting problem for which a program is given, specifies the causal processes through which the program is expected to produce the desired outcomes, predicts the outcomes expected of the program, and identifies the conditions under which the causal processes arise.

The prescriptive component of a program theory specifies (1) the nature, intensity, and duration of the activities that should be performed in order to achieve the intended program outcomes, (2) the human and material resources needed for delivering the program, and (3) the procedures to be followed when delivering the program (Krueger, 2003).

Variable Definitions

As the primary aims of study is to provide insight about the affects of underdeveloped programs that are sponsored by non-profit organizations within the communities they serve.

This thesis basically intended for two well-known organizations in Washington DC, however for time purposes now it open to just use the effectiveness of underdeveloped programs in non-profit organization and the affects in low-income communities.

This case study will solely focus on two entities a community action agency and a leading educational institution collaborating their efforts to address the social and academic issues intended for the students whom resides in the Washington DC’s Ward 8 community.

Apart from this major focus will concentrate on proper result oriented development and implementation of program created by the nonprofit organization (Krueger, 2003).

The major issue indicates that almost Washington D.C. has a 20% poverty rate, which varies in different sections of the city. For example, Ward 7 in Washington D.C. the poverty rate is 24.9% and on the other hand Ward 8 the poverty level is at an astounding 36%.

Specific findings include Ward 8 in Washington D.C. comprises of 25000 households of out of which 25 % married couples. The role of NPO / Community Agency was focused on to establish and provide programs that are designed expressly to serve Washington DC’s low-income residents as well as providing training, support, social service, guidance, education, and referrals so that the residents can take control of their lives.

The NPO/Community Agency continues this longstanding tradition of service by focusing on the current existing needs by providing direct services to families who face a myriad of economic, social and emotional struggles.

The NPO/Community Agency established a partnership with a well recognized leading educational institution to address some of the academic needs and family management issues in the Ward 8 community (Kozol, 1995).

The partnership was supposed to develop a six-year higher education preparation and cultural enrichment project. However, as the main purpose as well as objective of this particular project was to impart a complete enriched multi-year academic and family support to promote post-secondary education attendance and self-sufficiency for program participants.

The intent of this program is to impart direction, advocacy and support to all of lower-income households as well as others who are eligible residents of Washington D.C.towards to assist at risk youth in accomplishing proper self-determination and self-sufficiency towards improvement of quality of the life of these local communities.

Many Non-profitable organizations (NPO) in Washington D.C., focusing on youth education with supportive ambitious policy aimed at ensuring that all maintained secondary schools meet the criteria of the project objectives.

Innovative features of the policy include: using the school ‘cluster’ approach as the basis of an holistic and strategic development of the estate; delivery through the newly-established Local Education Partnerships (LEPs), with assistance from Partnerships for Schools (PfS), the new procurement body; and the promotion of design quality and sustainability through a move towards a robust and extensive use of exemplar school designs.

In addition, incorporating the views of local stakeholders from the earliest stages is a central element of Educational Program, aimed at ensuring that the needs of the local communities affected are adequately met and ‘joined-up’ with other Government initiatives for the delivery of integrated services, e.g., extended schools and initiatives relating to the Every Child Matters children and families agenda (Kozol, 1995).

Within this context, it is imperative that a robust, fully independent and professional evaluation is undertaken of Educational Program. The ultimate objective of the evaluation is to assess the impact of the initiative on educational and other outcomes amongst pupils, and the transmission mechanisms through which any effects are mediated.

In addition, there is a clear shorter-term need for the evaluation to identify which particular aspects of the initiative in its earlier stages are having the greatest impact (e.g., relating to management, procurement and delivery of the program). On the basis of this, real-time research of elements of good practice can be fed through into the later stages of the initiative in order to maximize its overall impact (Hughes, 2000).

As many NPO believe that the provision of Educational Institutes as “Learning Hubs” would impact all aspects of the provision of education within the Washington D.C.

Other previous experience of many NPO with the design, development implementation, support and evaluation of large scale educational ICT projects has provided us with a detailed understanding of the issues necessary to facilitate educational change and deliver the benefits associated with such investments (Hughes, 2000).

Scope of the Study

Young population and youth all across America specially residing in underserved societies faced with a lot of negative environmental and social factors that affect social growth, the process of thought, emotional as well as other growth. In the Washington Metropolitan area, there are numerous non-profit organizations serving “at-risk youth.”

The purpose of this study is to gain understanding of how an underdeveloped program fails to meet the intended goals targeting Washington D.C.’s Ward 8 community. The relationship between development of the program and services rendered to the students coincide with the success the program could potentially have.

Many organization which fails to recognize all qualitative and quantitative changes in citizen preference will surely lose citizen’s confidence and authenticity; organizational effectiveness is defined as the degree to which an organization is satisfying broad sets of preferences for performance, as defined by the organization constituents.

This case study will gain understanding about the dynamic failure of a non-profit organization program that is intended to help urban metropolitan youth attend college, but fail to set and measure benchmarks (Hellison, 2002).

Theoretically, as well as practice collaboration is supposed to result in professional interdependence. This may be a result of various circumstances such as: lack of financial resources; restructuring of the organization; or here by day gone by night. The program theory will be used to investigate the effects of program (Hellison, 2002).

However, it might be noted that as his study is to provide insight about the affects of underdeveloped programs that are sponsored by non-profit organizations within the communities they serve.

The scope of thesis basically intended for two well-known organizations in Washington DC, however for time purposes now it open to just use the effectiveness of underdeveloped programs in non-profit organization and the affects in low-income communities.

This case study will solely focus on two entities a community action agency and a leading educational institution collaborating their efforts to address the social and academic issues intended for the students whom resides in the Washington DC’s Ward 8 community.

Apart from this major focus will concentrate on proper result oriented development and implementation of program created by the nonprofit organization (Bosch, 2002).

Significance of the Study

The significance of the study is to provide insight about the affects of underdeveloped programs that are sponsored by non-profit organization within the communities they serve. The study was intended for two well-known organizations in Washington DC, however for time purposes now it open to just use the effectiveness of underdeveloped programs in non-profit organization and the affects in low-income communities.

The study solely focus on two entities a community action agency and a leading educational institution collaborating their efforts to address the social and academic issues intended for the students whom resides in the Washington DC’s Ward 8 community. Apart from this major focus will concentrate on proper result oriented development and implementation of program created by the nonprofit organization (Heinesen, 2004).

The significance of the study is also focus on the major issues, which includes that- almost Washington D.C. has a 20% poverty rate which varies in a different section of the city.

For example, Ward 7 in Washington D.C. the poverty rate is 24.9% and on the other hand Ward 8 the poverty level is at an astounding 36%. Findings include Ward 8 in Washington D.C. comprises of 25000 households of out of which 25 % married couples (Bosch, 2002).

Role of NPO / Community Agency was focused on to establish and provide programs that are designed expressly to serve Washington DC’s low-income residents as well as providing training, support, social service, guidance, education, and referrals so that the residents can take control of their lives.

The NPO/Community Agency continues this longstanding tradition of service by focusing on the current existing needs by providing direct services to families who face a myriad of economic, social and emotional struggles (Bosch, 2002).

The NPO/Community Agency established a partnership with a well recognized leading educational institution to address some of the academic needs and family management issues in the Ward 8 community. The partnership was supposed to develop a six-year higher education preparation and cultural enrichment project.

The main purpose, as well as objective of this particular project, was to impart a complete enriched multi-year academic and family support to promote post-secondary education attendance and self-sufficiency for program participants.

The intent of this program is to impart direction, advocacy and support to all of lower-income households as well as others who are eligible residents of Washington D.C. towards to assist at risk youth in accomplishing proper self-determination and self-sufficiency towards improvement of quality of the life of these local community (Bosch, 2002).

Limitations

As the primary goals of the study are to provide insight about the affects of underdeveloped programs that are sponsored by non-profit organization within the communities they serve.

However, it is limited for two well-known organizations in Washington D.C., however, for time purposes, but now it open to just use the effectiveness of underdeveloped programs in non-profit organization and the affects in low-income communities (Bosch, 2002).

This study will solely focus on two entities a community action agency and a leading educational institution collaborating their efforts to address the social and academic issues intended for the students whom resides in the Washington DC’s Ward 8 community. Apart from this major focus will concentrate on proper result oriented development and implementation of program created by the nonprofit organization (Bosch, 2002).

This study also limited to discuss the general findings in the area of poverty, educations, issues and challenges for effective youth and education programs, and specifically limited to Washington DC’s low-income residents as well as providing training, support, social service, guidance, education, and referrals so that the residents can take control of their lives.

The study limitation also focuses on the current existing needs by providing direct services to families who face a myriad of economic, social and emotional struggles. It also extended but limited to the NPO partnership with a well recognized leading educational institution to address some of the academic needs and family management issues in the Ward 8 community (Bosch, 2003).

The specific limitation of this study is to find out and highlight the issue program which started to impart direction, advocacy and support to all of lower-income households as well as others who are eligible residents of Washington D.C., towards to assist at risk youth in accomplishing proper self determination and self-sufficiency towards improvement of quality of the life of these local community (Bosch, 2003).

Literature Review

As major part of this analysis will undertake a comprehensive review of existing literature on the links between program outcomes in a non-profit organization serving at risk youth in an urban metropolitan area of Washington D.C. as well as capital spending (and resources more generally) and pupil attainment.

This will provide an update to the review of program outcomes as part of non-profit organization serving at risk youth in an urban metropolitan area of Washington D.C. and their Performance research. Since this time it required to remain close to the developing literature in this area.

There has been a significant number of research studies published over the last four years. In this it provides some specific examples of recent studies which may be of particular interest to the Education Department (Hanushek, 2001).

However, as this study focus to provide insight about the affects of underdeveloped programs that are sponsored by non-profit organization within the communities they serve.

This thesis basically intended for two well-known organizations in Washington DC, however for time purposes now it open to just use the effectiveness of underdeveloped programs in non-profit organization and the affects in low-income communities, thus the limited Literature available on this space and used to complete the study and focused to finding out issues and challenges as well as program outcomes in a non-profit organization serving at risk youth in an urban metropolitan area.

As this case study will solely focus on two entities a community action agency and a leading educational institution collaborating their efforts to address the social and academic issues intended for the students whom resides in the Washington DC’s Ward 8 community.

Apart from this major focus will concentrate on proper result oriented development and implementation of program created by the nonprofit organization (Bosch, 2003).

The literature review limited to the issues which include and provides the findings and more insight as mentioned in the reference/bibliography section of thesis report.

For example, specific literature were use for more specific findings likes-Washington D.C. has a 20% poverty rate which varies in different section of the city. For example, Ward 7 in Washington D.C. the poverty rate is 24.9% and on the other hand Ward 8 the poverty level is at an astounding 36%. Findings include Ward 8 in Washington D.C. comprises of 25000 households of out of which 25 % married couples (Bosch, 2003).

Similarly the System-Wide Evaluation: Taking the Pulse of a National Organization Serving Children, Youth, and Families at Risk by Sherry C. Betts and Donna J. Peterson published in Children’s Services: Social Policy, Research, And Practice, 4(2), 87–101 in the year of 2001 is also more relevant literature on support of the topic Program Outcomes in a Non-Profit Organization Serving at Risk Youth in an Urban Metropolitan Area (Bosch, 2003)

As per those available literature the role of NPO / Community Agency was focused on to establish and provide programs that are designed expressly to serve Washington DC’s low-income residents as well as providing training, support, social service, guidance, education, and referrals so that the residents can take control of their lives.

The NPO/Community Agency continues this longstanding tradition of service by focusing on the current existing needs by providing direct services to families who face a myriad of economic, social and emotional struggles.

Similarly, the NPO/Community Agency established a partnership with a well recognized leading educational institution to address some of the academic needs and family management issues in the Ward 8 community.

The partnership was supposed to develop a six-year higher education preparation and cultural enrichment project. The main purpose, as well as objective of this particular project, was to impart a complete enriched multi-year academic and family support to promote post-secondary education attendance and self-sufficiency for program participants.

The intent of this program is to impart direction, advocacy and support to all of lower-income households as well as others who are eligible residents of Washington D.C. towards to assist at risk youth in accomplishing proper self-determination and self-sufficiency towards improvement of quality of the life of these local community (Bosch, 2003).

As part of complete analysis, I have undertaken a comprehensive review of existing literature on the links between educational capital spending (and resources more generally) and pupil attainment in the education institutes. This provided an update on the review earlier conducted in the similar research areas. Since this time, we have remained close to the developing literature in this area.

There has been a significant number of research studies published over the last four years. In this thesis, I have provided examples of some of these (along with a number of other relevant older studies) in the bibliography to this. In the Box below, we have provided some specific examples of recent studies which may be of particular interest to the Department.

Given the longitudinal nature of the evaluation (3 years in the first instance), we will undertake a comprehensive literature review in the first year, and report on it as one of our first significant outputs. Thereafter, we will provide annual updates to the literature review, thesis.

The literature review focus on contribute to the overall baseline assessment of the initiative and assist with the development of the methodological approach relating specifically to survey design on an ongoing basis. It is key that this work is given due consideration in the early stages of the evaluation as it establishes some of the key areas where existing work may be usefully adapted and avoids potential duplication of effort (Bosch, 2003).

Examples of key findings from recent academic literature include mixed evidence on the links between resources and attainment. For example, on analyzing comprehensive to this literature it is found a perennial issue in the economics of education related to estimation of the effect of additional resources (either financial or non-financial) on education attainment.

The more recent academic literature in the US has established that there is a systematic link between certain education inputs (such as expenditure and teacher quality as measured by experience) and increased educational attainment (Hedges, Laine and Greenwald (1994) and Dewey, Husted and Kenny (2000)).

This is contrast to the original work of Hanushek (1986, 1997) where it was illustrated that there was no systematic link between resources and educational attainment. However, these Meta-analyses are not directly comparable and there is considerable ambiguity relating to the causal link between expenditure and educational attainment (Bosch, 2003).

These types of analyses have not been able to be replicated and there are few methodologically robust studies due primarily to the lack of suitable data (Mayston and Jesson, 1999). The academic literature has focused primarily on the evaluation of various initiatives such as Excellence in Cities or the Education Maintenance Allowance on educational outcomes.

However, these evaluations have always had as their primary focus the effect of current expenditure on attainment and educational participation rather than the effect of capital spending.

In the few studies that have been undertaken, it has been found that there is a link between capital expenditure and various measures of educational attainment (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2000 and 2003) though the fact that much of the capital expenditure has been piecemeal has limited the robustness of the results.

However Some good reviews of the design-focused literature includes Earthman (2002) in a major review of mainly US literature like Schneider (2002) provides a comprehensive overview of the design literature from the US and elsewhere.

Study Design/ Methodology

Literature Survey

The study is of a descriptive nature and theoretical bases will be used:

Literature Survey.

The theoretical background obtained from a literature study regarding the field of Program Outcomes in a Non-Profit Organization Serving at Risk Youth in an Urban Metropolitan Area. Information regarding best practices pertaining to the area of Program Outcomes in a Non-Profit Organization Serving at Risk Youth in an Urban Metropolitan Area gathered from various documents (files and reports), wherever available.

Information Gathering Instruments

Selection of Instruments

The major growing concern regarding the Non-Profit Organization Serving at Risk Youth in an Urban Metropolitan Area is poverty, mindset or citizen, local issues of Washington D.C. along with the tremendous risk towards failure of educational programs.

The measuring instrument that will be adopted for the research is a detailed review of best practices and failures towards various aspects of Non-Profit Organization Serving at Risk Youth in an Urban Metropolitan Area are poverty (Buckley, 2003).

On the need basis, if as and when required some questionnaire, pilot study, statistical analysis and reliability also considered as a information gathering instrument.

Stakeholder interviews and research design

It will be important throughout the evaluation to ensure that the views of key high-level stakeholders that are sought and used to feed into the design and implementation of the main evaluation, understand the variation in the implementation of the policy at local level, and assist with the interpretation of findings.

To do this, a series of high-level stakeholder interviews conducted using, as its basis, a closed response questionnaire to assist with subsequent coding for later analysis. The focus of the interviews will vary, depending on when they are conducted (i.e., Year 1, 2, 3 or other) and who they are conducted with.

We will be guided by the Department about the stakeholders to be included in these interviews but, at this stage, we envisage it including, for example, representatives from the Department, the Local Authorities (or their representative organizations) involved in the initiative, PfS, LEPs and the main contractors involved in the capital works.

The interviews would be conducted by senior members of the evaluation team, either face-to-face or by telephone (Buckley, 2003).

Data Analysis

The Data Analysis is based on Descriptive statistics that may include standard; mean deviations, as well as frequency distributions, were calculated for items and data wherever suitable. Other scores were calculated for based on the response that may include in the way by subtracting the response to the ideal item from the response to the current item.

All those discrepancy scores revealed with size and direction of the gap among a respondent’s perceptions of the current system and an ideal system. On the basis of the same, some paired tests were used to determine the significance of the differences between current and ideal means (Dudek, 2000).

Conceptual Model and Evaluation Framework

The methodology adopted for this evaluation can be set within the context of a conventional evaluation model, which, in line with HM Treasury Green Book guidance, distinguishes inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes (Earthman, 2002). Our interpretation of each of these categories illustrated in the Figure below:-

Evaluation Framework.

Primary Evaluation Approach

The Figure below provides an overview of our secondary approach used(Earthman, 2002).

Primary Evaluation Approach.

Secondary Evaluation Approach

Secondary Evaluation Approach.

Findings

There are many findings in this study, however due to limited sample size the methodological approach of creating a control group based on school-level characteristics and undertaking a difference in differences approach allows for the comprehensive analysis of a variety of objective pupil outcomes based on a data source covering the entire statutory school age population.

In addition, to understand pupil motivations and attitudes, we have proposed to undertake a large scale survey (of 10,000 pupils) of specific year groups to create a panel of pupils (and headteachers) both in the Pathfinder and Wave 1 schools as well as comparison schools.

Even allowing for some elements of non-response and attrition, which we will aim to minimize at every point, we are confident that the eventual sample obtained will allow for detailed and robust analysis of many intermediate outcomes.

Thus an alternative to this methodology, I conducted a universal pupil survey (administered by the school and by post) of schools participating in Educational Program (and a selected control group).

However, to achieve the number of responses we propose above would involve extending the sample greatly – in essence, our approach means that although we have reduced the potential sample size, the actual achieved sample remains the same – our approach removes the deadweight loss associated with postal surveys (Earthman, 2002).

As far as the time lags considered, the regeneration of the entire secondary school estate will clearly take some time to filter through to increased educational attainment although it is likely to have some effects on attitudinal factors and school workforce issues in the shorter term.

In addition, given the fact that this is not the first large scale evaluation of educational attainment in the American youth, linkages can be made between the various short and longer-term outcomes across a variety of other initiatives.

If granted access to the data gathered as part of other evaluations of educational initiatives, for instance, the evaluation of Excellence in Cities, we may be able to illustrate the evidenced relationship between changes in intermediate and ultimate outcomes in these evaluations and, using this information, provide an indication of the longer-term effect on attainment based on the changes on intermediate and attitudinal outcomes (such as truancy and motivation/aspirations) occurring in Educational Program (Fielden, 2004).

In finding, effect size may included in addition to the estimation of pupil attainment, either in terms of absolute attainment or value-added, it is imperative to assess the ‘effect size’ of this policy. The use of effect sizes is still somewhat underdeveloped and there are some methodological issues associated with their use, such as restricted sample ranges and non-normal distributions (Coe, 2000).

However, the ability to compare outcomes of particular policies at different points in the attainment spectrum and assess the relative effectiveness (and with the appropriate assessment of cost information relating to an initiative, cost-effectiveness) can be invaluable to policymakers.

Given the recent evolution of this literature, we would welcome a two-way discussion on the most appropriate way to present our findings to policymakers (Fielden, 2004).

The findings of qualitative analysis included that with most evaluations of this nature, the quantitative analysis will be supplemented with in-depth qualitative research, which will provide stand-alone research feedback to policymakers and stakeholders relating to the implementation of the policy, as well as contributing to the longer-term analysis of educational attainment.

The qualitative research will be used to explore all aspects of the terms of reference but, in particular, will focus on aspects of Educational Program processes and transmission mechanisms (e.g. stakeholder relationships, role of exemplar designs, the impact of PFS, the value-added of LEPs, the effect of targeting clusters of schools etc.) and the identification of good practice (Bosch, 2003).

Cluster case studies – overview of activities conducted in each cluster.

An overview of the headteacher workshops and the school-based site visits is provided in the Tables below.

Workshops – overview

Details
Attendees
  • Headteachers from all schools in the cluster
  • Each workshop likely to be attended by around 15-20 people
Coverage
  • Clusters in the Pathfinders and subsequent waves
  • Costing (on the basis of Pathfinders and Wave 1 schools) of 8 clusters (and 8 workshops)
Objectives
  • Dependent on the timing, and the dynamics of the cluster, but likely to focus on:
  • Understanding the inputs and processes, including:
  • Advantages/disadvantages of clustering
  • Involvement of local stakeholders – practicalities and success
  • Local Education Partnership (LEP) – what are the dynamics? Is it working?
  • Strengths/weaknesses of exemplar designs
  • The value added of the National Procurement Body
  • The implication of Educational Program processes on Schools and schools within LEAs
  • Collaboration amongst schools
  • Collaboration across other education initiatives (e.g. Extended Schools, Aim Higher etc)
  • Outputs, including:
  • Quality of building – navigation, user friendliness, fit for purpose, satisfaction, sustainability, flexibility, appearance, comfort etc.
  • Average costs involved – actual vs. budgeted
  • Outcomes, although in the early stages of the evaluation the extent of outcome information available will be very limited
Outputs
  • Individual write ups of all workshops
  • Identification of good practice
  • Early warning of support requirements
  • Ongoing feedback to policy makers and practitioners of emerging trends associated with implementation and attitudes towards Educational Program in order to assist with the future implementation of the policy
  • Identification of unintended consequences
Format
  • Neutral location with easy access for headteachers
  • Facilitated by senior members of the evaluation team, supported by team members with liaison responsibility for the schools within the cluster

Site visits – overview

Coverage
  • 50 visits in total per year – around 3-4 sites (schools) per cluster, although consideration might also be given in the first year of the evaluation to visiting all pathfinder schools. Final selection of schools will be guided by the discussion and outputs from the headteacher workshops
Objectives
  • Focus on gathering information to assist with the
  • Identification of good practice
  • Environmental Assessment and application of Design Quality Indicators
  • Understanding school and cluster satisfaction ratings with Educational Program
  • Understanding attitudes and expectations of Senior Management during Educational Program policy
  • Understanding attitudes and expectations of School Workforce during Educational Program policy
  • Identification of spill-over effects of policy to community groups/neighbourhood
  • Understanding unintended consequences (displacement effects)
  • Speak with parents / community representatives
Outputs
  • Individual write ups of all visits
  • Identification of good practice
  • Semi-structured interviews with the headteacher, school workforce, parents and pupils
  • Feedback to policy makers and practitioners of emerging trends associated with implementation and attitudes towards Educational Program in order to assist with the future implementation
Format
  • Visit conducted by dedicated fieldwork team with extensive experience in school level site visits

The findings on Data and indicators include that- It is worth noting at the outset that the evaluation would need to hit the proper balance among final and intermediate outcomes; we know from our experience evaluating Academies that in the early stages of major evaluation work, there is likely to be a greater short-term impact on intermediate outcomes than on final outcomes.

For example, in some Academies, headteachers have told us that the most tangible early indicators of success have been on attendance, truancy and exclusions. For one headteacher, having all pupils in class with their ‘bums on seats’ was a huge step forward from the situation which existed in their previous school.

Ultimately this was expected to feed through into better pupil performance. In the course of a longer-term evaluation, therefore, such as the Educational Program evaluation, it is important to completely ensure that full and sufficient attention is paid to the intermediate indicators in the early stages of the evaluation (Bosch, 2003).

So in concluding remarks, it might be say on the basis of study that Program Outcomes in a Non-Profit Organization Serving at Risk Youth in an Urban Metropolitan Area based on the various, social-economic as well as political, cultural and environmental factor focus on the mindset of the citizens residing in the particular area like Washington D.C.

This reviles insight about the affects of underdeveloped programs that are sponsored by non-profit organization within the communities they serve. This thesis basically intended for two well-known organizations in Washington DC, however for time purposes now it open to just use the effectiveness of underdeveloped programs in non-profit organization and the affects in low-income communities.

As in the study, two entities a community action agency and a leading educational institution collaborating their efforts to address the social and academic issues intended for the students whom resides in the Washington DC’s Ward 8 community. Apart from this major focus that concentrates on proper result-oriented development and implementation of program created by the nonprofit organization (Bosch, 2003).

Summary of findings are as below:-

  • Pain area includes almost Washington D.C. has a 20% poverty rate, which varies in different sections of the city. For example Ward 7 in Washington D.C. the poverty rate is 24.9% and on the other hand Ward 8 the poverty level is at an astounding 36%.
  • Findings includes Ward 8 in Washington D.C. comprises of 25000 households of out of which 25 % married couples.
  • Role of NPO / Community Agency was focused on to establish and provide programs that are designed expressly to serve Washington DC’s low-income residents as well as providing training, support, social service, guidance, education, and referrals so that the residents can take control of their lives. The NPO/Community Agency continues this longstanding tradition of service by focusing on the current existing needs by providing direct services to families who face a myriad of economic, social and emotional struggles.
  • The NPO/Community Agency established a partnership with a well recognized leading educational institution to address some of the academic needs and family management issues in the Ward 8 community.
  • The partnership was supposed to develop a six-year higher education preparation and cultural enrichment project. The main purpose, as well as objective of this particular project, was to impart a complete enriched multi-year academic and family support to promote post-secondary education attendance and self-sufficiency for program participants. The intent of this program is to impart direction, advocacy and support to all of lower-income households as well as others who are eligible residents of Washington D.C. towards to assist at risk youth in accomplishing proper self-determination and self-sufficiency towards improvement of quality of the life of these local community.
  • Program Outcomes in a Non-Profit Organization Serving at Risk Youth in an Urban Metropolitan Area based on the various, social-economic as well as political, cultural and environmental factors focus on the mindset of the citizens residing in the particular area like Washington D.C. (Bosch, 2002).

Discussion of Findings

On the basis of the findings discussed in earlier section it is continuously felt the need of assessing cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis of Program Outcomes in a Non-Profit Organization Serving at Risk Youth in an Urban Metropolitan Area.

The assessment of the educational effectiveness, as defined by the effect size of an initiative is only one component of the relative assessment of the benefits associated with education attainment. It is also necessary within an evaluation to assess the total costs and benefits associated with a particular policy beyond the education arena.

It is notable that the many such programs indicate that post-education outcomes and the incidence of pupils not being in employment, education or training should be addressed.

However, given the period of time for which Educational Program will be operational and the length of time the initiative will require to feed through to pupil attainment and labor market outcomes post-education, it is imperative to accurately assess the possible lifetime costs and benefits associated with the policy (Buckley, 2003).

The methodology that might be adopt for building a long-term model for assessing the cost-effectiveness of Educational Program can be thought of in four stages, which are set out in the below diagram.

The cost effectiveness of Educational Program can be thought of in four stages.

This 4 stage approach using a variety of primary and secondary data sources will allow for the accurate assessment of the economic costs and benefits to the individual and government in line with HM Treasury Green Book guidance. This approach may be recommended for other Program Outcomes in a Non-Profit Organization Serving at Risk Youth in an Urban Metropolitan Area (Bosch, 2002).

References

Bosch, S. J. (2002) Public School Facilities and Teaching: Washington, DC and Chicago. 21st Century School Fund, Building Educational Success Together Initiative, Washington, DC.

Bosch, S. J. (2003) Identifying Relevant Variables for Understanding How School Facilities Affect Educational Outcomes. Dissertation, University of Georgia.

Bryant, L. and Northington, K. (2004) For Generations to come – A leadership Guide to renewing public school buildings. 21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC.

Buckley, J., Schneider, M. and Shang, Y. (2003) LAUSD School Facilities and Academic Performance. National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC.

Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. (1994). A matter of time: Risk and opportunity in the out of school hours. Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Dudek, M. (2000) The Architecture of Schools and the new Learning Environments. Architectural Press, Oxford.

Duke, D. L. and Trautvetter, S. (2001) Reducing the Negative Effects of Large Schools. National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC.

Earthman, G. I. (2002) School Facility Conditions and Student Achievement. Institute for Democracy, Education & Access, University of California, Los Angeles.

Earthman, G. I. (2004) Prioritization of 31 Criteria for School Building Capacity. American Civil Liberties Union Foundation of Maryland, Baltimore.

Fielden, R. (2004) Design quality in new schools. Designing Better Buildings. S. Macmillan. Spon Press, London.

Fisher, K. (2001) ‘Building Better Outcomes: The Impact of School Infrastructure on Student Outcomes and Behaviour.’ School Issues Digest. Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, Australia.

Hamilton, S. F., Hamilton, M. A., & Pittman, K. (2004). Principles for youth development. In S. F. Hamilton & M. A. Hamilton (Eds.), The youth development handbook. Coming of age in American communities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 3-22.

Hanushek, E. A. (2001) ‘Spending on Schools’ in Terry Moe and Williamson Evers (ed) A Primer on American Education. Hoover Press, pp 365-384.

Hanushek, E. A. (2002) ‘The Failure of Input-based Schooling Policies.’ Economic Journal 113 (February 2003), pp F64-F98.

Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J. F., Markman, J. M. and Rivkin, S. G. (2001) Does Peer Ability Affect Student Acheivement? Stanford University, National Bureau of Economic Research, and University of Texas, Dallas.

Heinesen, A. and Graversen, B. K. (2004) The effect of School Resources on Educational Attainment: Evidence from Denmark. Institute of Local Government Studies, University of Aarhus, The Danish National Institute of Social Research and The Graduate School for Integration, Production and Welfare, Denmark.

Hellison, D., & Walsh, D. (2002). Responsibility-based youth program evaluation: Investigating the investigations. Quest, 54, 292-307.

Hughes, D. M., & Curnan, S. P. (2000). Community youth development: A framework for action. Community Youth Development, 1, 7-13.

Kozol, J. (1995). Amazing grace. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.

Krueger, A. (2003) Economic considerations and class size, Economic Journal, 113 (February): F34-F63.

Krueger, A. B., Hanushek, E. A. and Rice, J. K. (2002) Politics and the class size debate, The Economic Policy Institute’s Education Program, Washington, DC.

Lawson, H. (1997). Children in crisis, the helping professions, and the social responsibilities of the university. Quest, 49, 8-33.

Lyons, B. (2001) ‘Do School Facilities Really Impact a Child’s Education?’ A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues, IssueTrak.

Machin, S., McNally, S. and Meghir, C. (2003). Excellence in Cities: Evaluation of an Education Policy in Disadvantaged Areas. Web.

Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A. and Kain, J. F. (2001) Teachers, Schools and Academic Achievement. Working Paper No. 6691, National bureau of Economic Research (revised).

Schneider, M. (2002) Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes. National Clearing House for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC.

Scott-Webber, L. (2004) In Sync: Environmental Behaviour Research and the Design of Learning Spaces. Society for College and University Planning, Ann Arbor, MI.

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