The life cycle of the newspaper is split into several phases. First, each paper is made of wood, is the main raw material for producing printed papers. The newspapers are specifically made of fresh fibers received from spruce trees that grow in forests of Germany, Sweden, and Canada (Axel Springer Verlag 8).
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Second, the wood pulp is also necessary for the manufacturing process because it constitutes an important substance for yellowing newspapers. Third, the chemical pulp contains cellulose that is extracted from wood and is bleached (Axel Springer Verlag 9). Part of the raw materials involved in the production derives from vegetable matter, recycled newspaper, and cloth. The use of pine trees is also frequent because it contributes to the strength of the paper.
A certain percentage of newspaper’s materials involve the wood pulp from the sawmill, as well as recycled paper. The latter is heavily used by the newspaper manufacturers to handle the issue of environmental protection and deforestation (Axel Springer Verlag 9). The trees used in the production of paper industry are called “softwood.” Linen and cotton rags are also used for producing a newspaper with strong cardstock.
Newspapers are usually printed using mineral oil ink. Because newsprint does not include heating, there is the time needed for drying the ink, which is absorbed by the paper inner fibers and remains throughout the entire lifecycle of the paper. Inks are composed of four major elements – resins, pigments, solvents, and additives.
The black pigment derives from carbon black, binder, composed of oil and resin, and a variety of additives, including drying and chelating agents. Resins bind other components of the ink and form a film for binding the ink and the paper.
The substance can be composed of cellulose derivatives and such chemical substances as males, alkyds, phenolics, and formaldehyde. Cyclized rubber and chlorinated rubber are two major types used in printing production.
Further, solvents are applied in the ink production to keep the liquid from the printed surface (Print Ink Technology and Manufacture 2). Volatile solvents include such compositions as ethyl acetate, isopropanol, and methylated spirits. Finally, additives are necessary to alter the properties of the ink. They include cyclohexanone, aromatic distillates, butoxyethanol, methoxypropanol acetate, and butyrolactone (Print Ink Technology and Manufacture 3).
Aside from wood pulp, fresh fibers, recycled newspapers, and ink, electricity and transportation means belong to the list of raw materials. These raw products are used particularly in the recycling and waste management. For instance, to recycle newspaper, such elements as recycled fiber and fresh fiber as a part of the recovered paper are substantial for producing the paper.
Transportation of wood, paper fiber, and ink is also necessary to deliver the raw material to the manufacturing plant. Therefore, the producers should take care of a sufficient supply of gas for transport. Electricity is required at various stage of paper production – from wood processing to ink printing.
This raw material should not be underestimated while evaluating production costs. In particular, the energy input is also used in the chemical and mechanical process of producing ink and paper separately. Finally, the use of transportation gas and electricity is also used for proper was management.
About the above-present components of newspaper production, it should be concluded that this process is very sophisticated because it is composed of central and periphery raw materials.
The central one includes wood, which is necessary for producing paper, and black carbon for producing ink. The periphery materials involve gas and electricity that are vital for transporting wood and processing raw substances.
Axel Springer Verlag. A Life Cycle Assessment of the Production of a Daily Newspaper and a Weekly Magazine. PDF File. 1998: 1-72, Web. 11 March. 2013. http://sustainability.axelspringer.com/fileadmin/media/nb/top-seiten/studies_and_reports/LifeCircle_NewspaperMagazine_lca_studie_e.pdf
Print Ink Technology and Manufacture. PDF File. n. d. Web. 13 Mar. 2013. http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/polymers/10E.pdf