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Daniel Dresner is one of the scholars who conducted a critical review on theories of international relations, including realism. The scholar notes in his works ‘Theories of International Politics and Zombies’ that powerful states are always in search of effective ways of conquering enemies.
He observes that the emergence of the Zombies would be the perfect solution to the problems facing powerful states. The scholar observes that Zombies are more dangerous as compared to Vampires and witches since they can eradicate humanity from the face of the earth.
The emergence of Zombies threatens world security. Therefore, it calls for the attention of both state and non-state actors. Zombies are unstoppable since they have the capability to cross state borders.
Therefore, Zombies can affect the governance structures of various states. In chapter eight, Dresner compares Zombies to other global problems facing states, such as climate change, political instabilities, and endemics.
From the chapter, it is evident that the tenets of realism are brought out clearly. However, some aspects of the theory are not explored. This article aims at evaluating the views of Dresner as regards to realism.
From a realist perspective, the state is the unit of analysis implying that other actors are not considered. The behavior of a state in the international system is influenced by the superpower.
If there is change in polarity, the state tends to adjust its foreign policies to reflect the changes. In other words, this means that the international system is anarchical whereby the most powerful states will always use force to ensure compliance from weak states.
In chapter eight, Dresner observes that unstable cooperation among states is always the order of the day in the international system. The scholar uses various movies to show that human beings rarely unite when faced with Zombies.
In the same way, states are simply concerned about national interests. They will only intervene to solve a problem in the international system if their national interests are at stake.
Furthermore, the scholar notes that the threat of Zombies may force individuals to form alliances. In the international system, realists believe that states form military alliances only to strengthen their military power but not to liberate other states.
In chapter eight, the scholar observes that states form alliances but they do not commit themselves to the treaties formed. For instance, the meeting between Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan in 1985 was meant to solve common problems.
The US president claimed that Russia had to form an alliance with the US because they were both faced with a common problem, which was terrorism. Terrorism is currently treated as a global problem affecting the stability of many states.
Terrorism is an example of a Zombie because no state is spared. However, powerful states seek the assistance of weak states to enhance their national security. For instance, weak states such as Kenya, are adopting anti-terrorist policies.
In Kenya, the bill legalizing anti-terrorist policies is ready. In fact, it has already been approved by parliament. This does not exist to benefit Kenyans. It exists to serve the interests of powerful states since they have heavily invested in the country.
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In the international system, realists argue that states rarely cooperate due to mistrust and suspicion. States use all available means to maintain sovereignty. Just like in the state of nature where life was anarchical and short-lived, states are selfish and brutal.
States do not consider ethical implications of their behavior. In fact, states do not consult the electorate on matters related to foreign policies. Foreign policy is considered high politics implying that politicizing it would expose the state to enemies.
Dresner notes that states would use Zombies to maintain state sovereignty. For instance, states such as Spain, which faces resistance from secessionist group, would use Zombies to discipline long-term rivals.
Some states, such as Congo, Sudan, Uganda, India, China, and Mexico, would as well use Zombies to censor irredentist movements. Some states have been sharing state powers with terrorist groups.
Rebel groups demand that national governments must consult them before implementing important policies. In Spain, Basque has been controlling some parts of the country.
The government is forced to engage in peaceful negotiations with such groups because of lack of alternatives. Zombies would offer a solution to states facing opposition from irredentist movements.
Even though Dresner addresses some important issues regarding international relations theory, some parts of his works need further development. The scholar posits that the carbon footprint for Zombies is very low.
He further notes that Zombies have the ability of walking but they cannot drive. Since he compares Zombies to serious problems facing states, the statement is inaccurate. Serious problems, such as those related to terrorism and climate change, are circulating at a high rate.
This means that Zombies can actually drive. Global warming started as a minor problem in 1980. In fact, states never cared about coming up with strategies on how to conserve the environment. In the current international system, the issue of environmental conservation threatens world peace.
Developed states argue that developing states should adopt sustainable development policies whereby industries should follow strict environmental laws.
However, developing countries claim rich states should fund programs aimed at conserving the environment. Since national interests always guide states, none of the sides is willing to give in to the demands of the other.
Another weakness is that Dresner recommends states to convert some individuals into Zombies (Drezner 80). As already noted, Zombies are dangerous creatures that have the capability of destroying the world.
If individuals are converted into Zombies, terrorist groups could as well acquire their services. This would therefore pose a great challenge to governments.
Converting a section of the population into Zombies means training people to be terrorists. Some scholars claim that the world’s most dangerous terrorist groups, such as Al Qaeda, obtain its training from powerful states such the US and Russia.
Terrorist groups have sufficient resources that might help them procure the services of government experts. Since governments are reluctant to offer huge allowances to individuals, terrorist groups would take this advantage to lure experts trained by the government.
Some reports claim the world’s deadliest terrorists, such as Osama bin Laden, trained in the US. Therefore, the views of Dresner regarding converting a section of the population to Zombies are misplaced. If governments are to fight terrorism, efficient strategies must be employed.
The government cannot employ similar strategies as those of terrorists to protect lives. The government represents public interests implying that it must provide security to each person using conventional means. Converting people to Zombies would be considered unethical.
Drezner, Daniel. Theories of International Politics and Zombies. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011. Print.