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Lloyd Bitzer explores the concept of ethics. His article examines the dilemma that is associated with ethics. It is in this dilemma that the rhetorical question arises. The effect of the rhetorical question on the audience is examined. In this case, the rhetorical question is examined in the realm of art and literature.
Bitzer suggests that the rhetorical question in the traditional sense is not a simple question with contradicting ideas, but a comprehensive speech.
On the other hand, the concept of rhetoric is applied in narrations where a character finds gets into a situation where two contradicting actions are to be done. When a speech contains rhetoric, the weight of the rhetoric comes from the situation that the speech describes (Bitzer 1).
Copyright and Fair Use
The copyright and fair use article discusses the technicalities that exist in protecting copyrighted work. Copyright laws govern the extent to which the copyright owner can restrict the original work from being accessed.
A copyright owner may give a notice to warn that his or her original work is copyrighted. Original work cannot be absolutely protected from use by a secondary party.
According to the article, one can breach copyright rules in two ways. Plagiarism is a breach of copyright ethics, while copying of original work is a crime. For the purpose of training and teaching, original work may be fairly used.
Tutors and examiners can counter plagiarism by use of penalties. On the other hand, there are legal consequences for copying original work subject to copyright protection (Forness 2).
Another article features Larry Lessig, a professor who once predicted the current problems in copyright protection. The professor foresaw the problem that sites such as YouTube and Napster would bring to the copyright industry. In addition, the professor depicts the copyright laws as traditional and obsolete in relation to the modern society (Lessig 3).
Communication and Argument
The article by Wysocki Lynch focuses on the concept of argument. An argument is a situation that arises when two or more parties hold conflicting ideas. The concept of argument is divided into two theories. In a formal argument, the parties involved in the argument hold different logical positions, while in the informal argument people have different perspectives when interpreting a certain phenomena.
According to the article, people tend to ignore the opinions of those with ideas contrary to theirs. This widens the rift between the parties in the argument. This is because of lack of effective communication.
The article continues to explain the steps that should be taken to enhance communication. This way, effective communication reduces arguments by enabling people to understand each other (Wysocki & Lynch 28)
Communication and Design
In this chapter of the book by Wysocki and lynch, a guide on how to develop a design plan is explained. The steps through which one would go through to develop a valid game for children are laid out. In the two chapters, design is a key factor on how communication is achieved especially in the education sector (Lynch 30).
According to the book, education must have a design that students will respond to positively. Thus, communication can be improved through modification of design.
Design of arguments and rhetorical situations is also explored. Importance of research is also emphasized in the book. Research begins with an idea, which is then developed into a question for which the research is done (Wysocki & Lynch 63).
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Video Games Shape Our Culture
Henry Jenkins depicts video games as the art for the digital age. Computer programs that are predictable and systematic generate video games. The widespread use of computer games by children is degrading art. Some people are against adoption of computer games as a form of art. However, the computer games are getting common in everyday life.
Jenkins’s article argues that art has always been treated like the computer games. After some reluctance to accept some forms of art, the society finally accepts the arts. The article postulates that computer games are the art of the future. While on one end, the computer games are being accepted as art, on another front they are regarded as results of lack of creativity in today’s young generation.
Will Wright pictures modern videogames as dream machines where children play games without any form of a manual. He says that the video games have substituted the real world with animated video. His article proposes that this is a new trend for human beings. We are on the course of replacing every part of our lives with electronic gadgets. The games seem contrary to this era of systematic learning.
The society sees the games as a symbol of decadence. Wright then postulates that the society chooses to see the darker side of the whole affair.
He supports the use of video games since they actively engage the player. He also says that the computer is used for social purposes rather that the traditional use in science. In the article, there is a prediction that games are going to be models of our own activity in the future.
Bitzer, Lloyd. Bitzer’s rhetorical situation: a heuristic endeavor.. Pensylvania: Pensylvania University, 1987. Print.
Forness, Megan. “Copyright and Fair Use.” Copyright and Fair Use. Version 1. lrs education, 6 May 2009. Web. <lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/forness/copyright.html >.
Jenkins, Henry. “Culture Zone.” Technology Review [Mount Morris] 1 Oct. 2000, 1 ed., sec. Technology: 117-120. Print.
Lessig, Larry. “Free Sharing.” Ethics of Web. Version 1. lessig.org, 5 Aug. 2011. Web. <www.lessig.org/blog/2006/10/the_ethics_of_web_20_youtube_v.html >.
Lynch, Wysocki. “Designing Compositions Rhetorically.” Designing Compositions Rhetorically 1.January (2004): 27-33. Print.
Wysocki, Anne Frances, and Dennis A. Lynch. Compose, design, advocate. 2nd ed. White Plains, N.Y.: Longman ;, 2011. Print.