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The process combines several lithographic methods to achieve the required pattern. Lithography involves the understanding and the fabrication of nanoscopic-scale structures.1 In this process, a nanoscopic device is physically moved on a surface to create a pattern.2 A required sample is identified by scanning a nanoscopic to mark scales on the surface. The process of scanning probe lithography is grouped into two. The two are:
Here, a pattern is formed by moving chemicals on a given surface. One of the constructive processes includes dip-pen Nanolithography. For instance, alkaline thiolates were moved on a gold surface using scanning force nanoscopy.3
Here, a pattern is created using energy. The energy is released to the substrate in different forms. The energy provided can be mechanical or thermal.4 The destructive system is evident in nanoimprint lithography formed by mechanical energy, where patterning is fabricated on a nanometre scale. Another example of a destructive system is local oxidation of nanolithography. In this case, confinement is carried out on the tip of atomic force microscopy.5
Alberto, J, Physics of crystal growth, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2012.
Muller, R, Device electronics for integrated circuits, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2003.
Venables, J, Introduction to surface and thin film processes, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011.
- J Venables, Introduction to the surface and thin film processes, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011, p. 214.
- Alberto, p. 62.
- Alberto, p. 61.
- Muller, p. 79.
- Muller, p. 80.