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Significant Principles of Management Communication Research Paper


Introduction

The success of a business organization lies heavily on proper communication mechanisms within its structures. There are many publications and articles describing the effects of communication on businesses. In any trade, communication is an important ingredient for significant accomplishment.

Even though the existence of specific communication norms contributes to the successful business operation, several communication aspects in business are attributed to failure at the organizational level.

The research paper reviews some of the materials previously discussed in the course to discuss management communication. It examines the effective communication norms in a business set up, the role of interpersonal communication, barriers to communication, and strategies to overcome the barriers for conflict resolution in business among other issues related to communication.

Effective Communication Norms

Effective communication in a business setting is a positive contributor to the development and progress of an organization (Baack, 2012). Through training, employees acquire adequate and relevant business skills and knowledge, which are paramount for business advancement.

Therefore, there should be adequate cycles to ensure that the knowledge flows easily among the different levels. According to Baack (2012), effective communication attracts knowledge to an organization. It is responsible for the dissemination of information to employees. The availability of information, as facilitated by effective communication, makes it easier for employees to come up with decisions that are beneficial to the organization.

An effective communicator must have an underlying desire to communicate, which depends on several factors (Baack, 2012). The factors include, but not limited to, personal values of the communicator and the expectation that the recipients of the message will receive it in a meaningful manner (Baack, 2012).

The communicator must also understand the learning processes of other individuals in terms of the differences in how some of the individuals are likely to perceive the information (Baack, 2012). According to Shortell (1991, p. 87), the differences in the recipients comprise “the abstract vs. concrete and the analytic vs. intuitive variations”.

The other component of effective communication in business is the ability of the sender of information to signal the recipient about the intended function of the message (Baack, 2012). It is vital for the recipient to identify whether the intention of the message is to provide information or inform decision-making (Baack, 2012).

In choosing the modes of communication, one should not only consider the content of the message and its significance but also its involvement and/or simplicity (Shortell, 1991). Since the interpretation of the information rests with the recipient, and hence a factor that possesses challenge to effective communication, simplicity and relevance are inevitable in realizing the objectives of a message. According to Baack (2012), the sender’s credibility also affects the reception of communicated messages.

Worthy communication typically follows reliability. In addition, the timeframe of the communicated messages is very important, with shorter periods requiring extra precise cues (Shortell, 1991). Effective communication should involve the transmission of information among parties in an organization (Baack, 2012). However, a sender should transfer the information to the intended audience within the stipulated timeframe and in the most original form.

Role of Interpersonal Communication

Interpersonal communication is a communication that exists between individuals or groups (Baack, 2012). However, in my view, it is simply the sharing of information between two individuals or a group of individuals. In management, interpersonal communication can take place between the different levels of executive or lower employee levels.

In some cases, managers share information upwards with their superiors while at times they communicate to their juniors at the lower level. When interpersonal communication occurs between managers in a horizontal level, for example, between managers of the same bank in a given region, it serves to keep the peers informed of the organizational policies, procedures, or current practices (Spillan, Mino, & Rowles, 2002).

Moreover, managers communicate the organizational policies, changes, instructions, and recommendations to their subordinates (Baack, 2012). For instance, a professional interpersonal communication between managers and employees can be in a retail chain company where the manager calls an employee and informs him or her of any changes in price for some of the commodities.

Besides, managers can ask for clarification on some of the transactions that the employees may have conducted. Consequently, interpersonal communication is significant in helping the management keep track of the organizational operations to guarantee efficiency.

Vertical and horizontal interpersonal communication is useful to the employees (Baack, 2012). The interpersonal communication at the horizontal level occurs when employees communicate the methods of efficient production to their colleagues to ensure that they are efficient as a team.

The employees can also congratulate or recommend their peers on their functions in the organization and help them improve in their job functions. For instance, a professional interpersonal communication can occur where the employee in a retail outlet tells his or her peers about changes in the organizational policy, thus requiring them to abide by the policy. At the vertical level, interpersonal communication serves to help employees acquire new skills, which are essential in improving productivity.

Interpersonal communication also obliges the role of educating the staff of a particular company through the sharing of information related to the organization and the job process (Baack, 2012).

Interpersonal communication allows managers better their decision-making in an organization, hence enabling them exercise their management skills to influence the organizational performance (Spillan, Mino, & Rowles, 2002). Therefore, for any business to advance its performance and diversify its operations, good interpersonal communication is inexorable.

Overcoming Barriers

Both managers and employees have troubles at some levels of communication in understanding, interpreting, and responding to messages. The barriers encountered in the process of communication result from the mode of passing information, human errors, and interpersonal differences. The barriers demand the application of ingenuity and apt decision-making among other methods to overcome them.

According to Longest, Rakich, and Darr (2000), the barriers to communication are either environmental or interpersonal. The environmental barriers arise because of the ecological settings of an organization, hence constituting the organizational characteristics (Longest, Rakich, & Darr, 2000). On the other hand, personal barriers arise from individual characteristics and the nature of interaction with other individuals (Longest, Rakich, & Darr, 2000).

Managers should apply personal techniques to overcome the barriers of communication. According to Longest, Rakich, and Darr (2000), managers should put more emphasis on listening than talking in the communication process. Providing more time to listen is important because it reduces environmental barriers (Baack, 2012).

Therefore, the sender and receiver of the communicated message should practice more listening and paying attention to the messages than speaking. In addition, reduction of the number of intermediaries minimizes distortion of the message, which is a significant barrier to communication (Longest, Rakich, & Darr, 2000).

Managers should also adopt the use of a philosophy that allows free flow of communication, a principle that benefits the management position (Baack, 2012). In management, a significant barrier is evident due to the status differences with the subordinates. According to Baack (2012), tailoring of symbols to accompany the wording of the messages greatly minimizes the barriers because it adequately reinforces the messages.

Global Interpersonal Communication

Globalization has changed every aspect of business, as businesses apply the concept of globalization to compete. This section explores the role of international and intercultural interpersonal communications in today’s global businesses. Global business as a reality today has revolutionized communication.

The growth in telecommunication and e-commerce only means new concepts and opportunities for businesses (Baack, 2012). International interpersonal communication takes place between individuals or groups that are not within the same international or geographic borders. Interpersonal communication between people across geographical borders plays a special role in the current global business by enabling organizations harmonize their international and local operations.

The global interpersonal communication enables the organization adopt a common plan. According to Longest, Rakich, and Darr (2000), global communication is an essential tool in communicating the policies of an organization to different employees in overseas branches. International interpersonal communication is facilitated by growth in the information technology sector.

It has ensured that organizations are within reach of their clients. The global interpersonal communication has also been beneficial in the sharing of practices between regions, with companies outsourcing ideas from different parts of the world (Baack, 2012).

Just like global interpersonal communication, intercultural interpersonal communication is useful to the global business in a number of ways. It allows the formulation of an organizational culture that favors the global business (Baack, 2012). Managers can learn from different cultures the best methods of management and compare their practices with those practiced elsewhere for optimum organizational success (Longest, Rakich, & Darr, 2000).

Moreover, intercultural interpersonal communication in today’s global business not only allows the sharing of ideas on the development of the best organizational culture but also helps managers learn and comprehend the factors affecting businesses elsewhere while minimizing such risks from their organizations (Baack, 2012).

Intercultural interpersonal communications also allows managers and other people who are involved in the communication acquire the different cultures in the global business and/or how well to market the organization to them (Longest, Rakich, & Darr, 2000).

Verbal and Nonverbal Management Communication

Verbal communication uses spoken words to transfer information between and/or among individuals (Baack, 2012). The most important form of verbal communication is dialogue. Individuals use dialogue at the various levels of the organization to ensure efficiency. According to Edgley and Robinson (1991), for dialogue to be successful, people must observe certain fundamental principles. The participants should be motivated.

Besides, the communicating group should have recognized procedures by which it should abide (Edgley, & Robinson, 1991). A facilitator should also be available in the dialogue, but there must be confidentiality where needed (Baack, 2012). While the process needs to be free flowing and unrushed, the participants in the dialogue have to acquaint themselves and share meals in the office (Edgley, & Robinson, 1991).

Nonverbal management communication uses other means other than words to share information between individuals or groups (Baack, 2012). According to Nelson and Quick (2003), the four basic nonverbal communication forms are facial and eye behavior, proxemics, paralanguage, and kinesics. In the class of proxemics, an individual’s use of space or perception is an important nonverbal communication form (Edgley, & Robinson, 1991).

People sitting together constitute one of the nonverbal gestures in an organization and one of the proxemics. Body language or ‘kinesics’ is another important nonverbal communication form (Edgley, & Robinson, 1991). In an organization, managers can easily detect nervousness in employees since it only manifests through drumming of fingers.

Facial and eye behaviors are important nonverbal communication forms that occur when an employee frowns at the manager (Baack, 2012). The eye contact established also indicates the emotions between the communicating parties. According to (Baack, 2012), the quality, pitch, rate, and volume of speech in paralanguage are interpreted to provide important communication cues. The management and other people in organizations need to pay attention to these nonverbal communication forms to ensure that there are no impediments to communication.

Written Management Communication

Relevancy of information to the audience is a necessity for an effective written management communication (Edgley, & Robinson, 1991). The implication is that the contents of the written management communication should not be alien to the target audience. The party that intends to communicate should not only use simple information for the audience but also adequate emphasis where needed (Baack, 2012).

In addition, the use of imagery in written communication is inescapable as imagery is visually appealing to the recipients of the messages. According to Baack (2012), written communication should obey rules such as polite wording, brief where possible, keeping the intended messages, and avoiding detours.

Engaging the Audience during a Presentation

When making a presentation, managers should use ways that engage their audience to the subject under discussion. One way of engaging the audience is making them perform an activity such as standing (Baack, 2012). The managers should request the audience to repeat some of the information shared as several studies proposed that people learn well through repetition (Baack, 2012).

Alliteration is another important method of making the audience focused. In this case, the manager may use simple words beginning with the same letters or sounds (Baack, 2012). Moreover, first-hand experience is a potential method of making the audience more attentive.

The person making the presentation should use personal experience to emphasize and give real life examples. Considering the fact that the audience needs to be more attentive and focused during all types of presentation, analogies and metaphors equally serve to entertain and motivate the audience during any presentation. According to Baack (2012), the measures encourage active listening where the audience participates in the presentation indirectly.

Conflict Resolution

There exist several conflicts in any organization due to miscommunication, personal differences, and stresses. If the conflicts are not resolved, the organization may not meet its set objectives. Therefore, managers should do conflict resolution at any level in an organization and in time. At the management level, one of the methods that are encouraged widely is communication between the parties in the conflict (Baack, 2012).

The conflicting sides should be encouraged to have a conversation on any platform. This strategy is likely to see the parties come to a formidable solution. Mediation is another method of conflict resolution. In an organizational setting, the mediator is preferably a manager with experience in conflict resolution (Baack, 2012). The mediator discusses the problems between the warring parties to provide them with a solution that fits both sides.

In cases where communication and mediation have failed to provide a solution to the conflicting sides, the last resort applies. The last resort is arbitration or the judicial process (Baack, 2012). In arbitration, the conflicting sides consult a third party. They leave the decision-making process to him or her. The decision reached by the third party is legally binding and analogous only to the private judicial system (Baack, 2012).

Techniques for Leading Teams and Group Meetings

The leadership of groups and team meetings are widely applied in organizations to ensure maximum output. A successful meeting should first be scheduled, with the agenda for the meeting being distributed to members before the actual date of the meeting (Baack, 2012). In addition, communication of the venue, time, and duration of the meeting should take place prior to the meeting, as leading a meeting is not only for that day (Baack, 2012).

In the day of meeting, leaders should exercise punctuality. The leader should present the objectives for the particular meeting followed by a discussion of the agenda in an organized manner. The leader should allocate adequate time for each of the objectives and agenda in the meeting (Baack, 2012).

During the meeting, the group members should be allowed to contribute in turns. None of them should be treated more special in relation to the other members (Baack, 2012). The meeting should recognize and respect the contribution of members and appreciations made for any contribution that they provide during the meeting.

The meeting should allow members to participate by asking questions, questioning any decisions, or asking for clarifications (Baack, 2012). Furthermore, special rules should be the guiding principles of any successful meeting, for instance, a rule that protects a member from the interference of others during discussions (Baack, 2012). If the group leader respects all measures, the meeting will often be successful.

Reference List

Baack, D. (2012). Management Communication. San Diego, Calif.: Bridge point education, Inc.

Edgley, G., & Robinson, J. (1991). The Dialogue Process. Association Management, 43(10), 37–40.

Longest, B., Rakich, S., & Darr, K. (2000). Managing health services organizations. Baltimore: Health Professions Press, Inc.

Nelson, L., & Quick, C. (2003). Organizational behavior: Foundations, realities and challenges. Mason: South-Western.

Shortell, M. (1991). Effective hospital-physician relationship. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press.

Spillan, E., Mino, M., & Rowles, S. (2002). Sharing Organizational Messages through Effective Lateral Communication. Communication Quarterly, 50(2), 1-24.

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IvyPanda. 2019. "Significant Principles of Management Communication." July 10, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/significant-principles-of-management-communication/.

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