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Smoking is a critical issue that affects the well-being of the world’s population and often starts during youth. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that “one in five high school students and one in 14 middle school students reported current use of a tobacco product… Moreover, 47.2% of high school students and 42.4% of middle school students… used ≥2 tobacco products” (Jamal et al., 2017, p. 597). In addition to that, students can use e-cigarettes today. This issue requires further investigation because it has negative effects on people’s health, including cancer, respiratory problems, etc.
To explore the discussed issue, various epidemiology studies can be conducted. Observational ones can be used to gather more information about students’ smoking habits. For instance, cross-sectional surveys can be used to reveal how many students have smoked within particular educational establishments (Xu, Zhu, Sharma, Deng, & Liu, 2015). Case-control studies can be conducted to discuss the influences of smoking on school children. An experiment can be maintained to find out if an imitation of smoking can substitute the real process in the framework of its effects on children’s condition (Littel & Franken, 2012).
Justification of Choices
Observational studies are easy to conduct, and they provide an opportunity to find out what happens without affecting the population (Fida & Abdelmoneim, 2013). In this way, with the help of a cross-sectional study, professionals can minimalize the risk of students being afraid to reveal the fact that they smoke. A case-control study is advantageous because it allows discussing various effects of smoking perceived by both students and physicians. Finally, an experimental crossover study can measure outcomes of smoking imitation as they are perceived by students.
For this research, I will collect several types of data collected from a population. It will include qualitative data that reveals the influences of smoking mentioned by the sample (Ramagopalan, Lee, Yee, Guimond, & Traboulsee, 2013). In addition to that, information regarding its substitutes will be gathered. Quantitative data will also be needed to discuss the prevalence and statistics (Khoury, Manlhiot, Fan, Gibson, & Stearne, 2016). In this way, the number of students who smoke will be identified. This approach will be useful when discussing what consequences of smoking are observed as a rule, and what is experienced only by some individuals. The most frequently used substitutes will be identified in the same way (Farsalinos, Romagna, Tsiapras, Kyrzopoulos, & Voudris, 2013).
To receive this information, different types of questions will be asked. Depending on the research study, the sample will deal with descriptive, observational, and causal questions. For instance:
- What substitutes of smoking do you know?
- How long have you been smoking?
- What consequences have you experienced after a year of smoking?
Obtained findings will be disseminated to peer-reviewed journals for the professionals in the sphere to acknowledge them and consider their research studies. The main conclusions and evidence will be posted online for the representatives of the general public to be aware of the situation. Schools will also receive them to urge their leaders to implement changes associated with the prohibition of smoking.
Thus, it can be concluded that smoking is a bad habit that affects the health of the world’s population. A lot of middle and high school students smoke today, which leads to serious complications. Additional research is needed to improve the knowledge of this issue and develop new initiatives aimed at the mineralization of smoking rates among the targeted population. It can include cross-sectional surveys, case-control, and experimental studies, and should be based on both qualitative and quantitative data.
Farsalinos, K., Romagna, G., Tsiapras, D., Kyrzopoulos, S., & Voudris, V. (2013). Evaluating nicotine levels selection and patterns of electronic cigarette use in a group of “vapers” who had achieved complete substitution of smoking. Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment, 7, 139-145.
Fida, H., & Abdelmoneim, I. (2013). Prevalence of smoking among secondary school male students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: A survey study. BMC Public Health, 13, 1010-1015.
Jamal, A., Gentzke, A., Hu, S., Cullen, K., Apelberg, B., Homa, D., & King, B. (2017). Tobacco use among middle and high school students – United States, 2011-2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 66(23), 597-603.
Khoury, M., Manlhiot, C., Fan, C., Gibson, D., & Stearne, K. (2016). Reported electronic cigarette use among adolescents in the Niagara region of Ontario. Canadian Medical Association, 188(11), 794-800.
Littel, M., & Franken, I. (2012). Electrophysiological correlates of associative learning in smokers: A higher-order conditioning experiment. BMC Neuroscience, 13, 8-14.
Ramagopalan, S., Lee, J., Yee, I., Guimond, C., & Traboulsee, A. (2013). Association of smoking with risk of multiple sclerosis: A population-based study. Journal of Neurology, 260(7), 1778-1781.
Xu, X., Zhu, R., Sharma, M., Deng, S., & Liu, S. (2015). Smoking attitudes between smokers and non-smoker secondary school students in three geographic areas of China: A cross-sectional survey based on social cognitive theory. The Lancet, 386, S78.