Social justice is a serious concern in the United States, as some vulnerable groups are still deprived of various opportunities (Ardelt & Friedman, 2015). It is necessary to note that much has been done to ensure equality when it comes to health care. For instance, Medicare can be regarded as one of the most important initiatives that help many people including such vulnerable groups as the elderly (Ardelt & Friedman, 2015). Nevertheless, elderly people of color are less satisfied with the care provided (as compared to white older adults), and they are less likely to use all the services available to older adults (Wiesel & Weinberger, 2015). Some of the major values of a democratic society include equal access to available resources and equal treatment of people irrespective of their backgrounds. This paper includes a brief overview of the literature available on the social injustice experienced by the elderly with a focus on ethnic minorities and available resources and services. This paper also discusses a few ways to minimize this injustice.
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Review of the Literature
Wiesel and Weinberger (2015) explored older adults’ experiences associated with the use of healthcare services. The authors stress that elderly ethnic minority groups are characterized as having limited knowledge of available services, low expectations, and an inability to advocate their own needs (Wiesel & Weinberger, 2015). Thus, elderly patients of color often receive a limited number of services that are insufficient to meet their health needs. When this occurs, two basic ethical standards are violated: people are not treated equally, and people are not respected since their individual needs are not met.
Some Jesuit values that are not followed in these circumstances are Cura Personalis and men and women for others. Although certain efforts have been made to ensure equality in health care, some initiatives associated with these efforts are seen negatively younger generations who think that they care for the elderly is excessive while thousands of American children are behind the poverty line (Ardelt & Friedman, 2015). These researchers stress that the elderly benefit from the federal subsidies provided within Medicare. One problem is that the provision of funds does not ensure equality in the health care system. This is an injustice because elderly minorities are not receiving adequate care. It violates provisions 4 and 5 of the nurse’s ethical code.
Apart from the ethical standards mentioned above, the injustice in question is associated with the violation of another value. Teaching is inefficient or even non-existent. There can be no agents of change when people are unaware of proper practices, standards, regulations, and so on. The Elder Justice Act (EJA) stipulates training to improve healthcare services provided to the elderly (Kleba & Falk, 2014).
Application to Nursing
The existing injustice causes numerous inconveniences to the affected populations and contributes to the development of disparities in society. However, this injustice can be minimized through the adherence to ethical standards and regulations aimed at ensuring social justice. First, it is essential to focus on the training of healthcare professionals. Researchers such as Rosen et al. (2016) and Kleba and Falk (2014) emphasize the importance of proper education and training. EJA is an excellent platform for the development of effective incentives. Some on the job training and certain courses have proven to be effective, but they are still insufficient as even those who receive training often fail to use the most appropriate strategies. Rosen et al. (2016) found that only slightly over 12% of nursing professionals of a nursing home used appropriate strategies to address the needs of their patients. It is critical to include social injustice into the nursing curriculum. Students should know the peculiarities of the populations in question and should be aware of practices and services available to those patients.
Importantly, healthcare professionals should be committed to educating patients. Nurses spend more time with patients as compared to other healthcare practitioners. Some parts of this time should be devoted to patient education and the provision of the most relevant information. Nurses should make sure that all patients know about the available services and resources. Nurses can provide leaflets with certain information appropriate for different groups (differentiated by a health condition, gender, age, ethnicity, and so on). Nursing professionals can be specifically helpful when it comes to long-term care as they have time to develop proper relationships. Nurses should be trained accordingly (Wiesel & Weinberger, 2015). These healthcare professionals should obtain up-to-date information concerning the existing opportunities of such a vulnerable group as the elderly. Of course, there can be no bias or prejudice. Nurses should treat all patients equally irrespective of their age, ethnicity, gender, and other (Kleba & Falk, 2014).
It is impossible to provide all the necessary information to patients – nurses are overloaded with tasks and, more importantly, it can be difficult to understand the needs of every patient. Wiesel and Weinberger (2015) offer the use of a specific framework for assessing patients’ needs. These researchers argue that this framework can help healthcare professionals identify the services that can be the most beneficial for the patient. Therefore, it is possible to use this framework or to develop some tools on its basis. Some of the Jesuit values that apply here are Cura Personalis and men and women for others.
It is fair to say that the existing regulations, incentives, and practices aimed at the development of a truly fair healthcare system are not sufficient some groups are still treated differently than others. It is essential to incorporate social justice into the curriculum, improve on-the-job training, and develop the appropriate organizational culture in healthcare facilities. Elderly minority groups are vulnerable, as these populations often fail to use some benefits of the healthcare system, governmental programs, and regulations to meet their healthcare needs. The major barrier to the equal use of services is the lack of knowledge.
In simple terms, elderly minority groups do not know about opportunities or resources available to them and are reluctant to ask healthcare professionals for help (Wiesel & Weinberger, 2015). There are several ways to improve this situation. Nurses can be the major agents of change, as they spend a considerable amount of time with patients. Nurses have the necessary information concerning healthcare services, and they often develop appropriate relationships because patients trust them and follow their advice. Nurses should feel empowered to bring changes to the healthcare facilities, which can be achieved through training and the use of effective leadership. Therefore, the existing regulations and programs (such as Social Security and the EJA) should be expanded. More attention should be paid to the training of healthcare staff, which will be provided through formal education and on-the-job training.
Rubric Scholarly Paper: Social Injustice in the Geriatric Population
|Meets Criteria||Points||Needs Improvement||Points||Does Not Meet Criteria||Points||Earned|
|Introduction – 12 Points Possible|
|The introduction grabs the reader’s attention & clearly identifies the injustice to be discussed.||3||The introduction somewhat grabs the reader’s attention and identifies the injustice to be discussed.||1||The introduction does not grab the reader’s attention.||0||/3|
|The issue is clearly delineated as a social injustice, and identifies whatethical principles are violated. “Elder mistreatment is a social injustice because….”||5||The issue is delineated as a social injustice, but does not identify what is violated. (In other words, whatone or combination of the ANA ethical standards and/or Jesuit values are violated?)||3||The issue is not defined as a social injustice.||0||/5|
|The thesis statement tells the reader the paper’s purpose and indicates the main points to be discussed. This means that the thesis will include what the injustice is; the standards/values that are violated, and indicates that actions to minimize the occurrences will be suggested.||4||The thesis statement is present, but does not tell the reader what to expect.||2||There is no thesis statement.||0||4/4|
|Literature Review – 28 Points Possible||/12|
|Lists the prevalence and/or significance of the specific injustice chosen in measurable terms. Includes source information.||2||Provides limited data on the prevalence/significance of the injustice. Includes partial source information.||1||Does not include information on the prevalence/significance at all. Does not include source information.||0||/2|
|References at least (2) profession-al journal articles from the past 5 years available through Dayton Memorial Library database and (2) other books (electronic books acceptable) or scholarly web-based references in the paper and reference page. |
NOTE:Scholarly papers should have a minimumof one source citation per paragraph.
|6||References at least (1) professional journal article from the past 5 years available through Dayton Memorial Library database and (1) other book (electronic books acceptable) or web-based references in the paper and reference page. |
NOTE: Two points will be subtractedfor each paragraph without sourced citations.
|3||Includes less than 2 references from professional journal articles or books (electronic books acceptable) or web-based references obtained through Dayton Memorial Library databases or includes non-classical sources that are older than 5 years in the paper and reference page.||1||/6|
|Supports assertions with source citations throughout paper. Does not include personal opinion in scholarly writing.||4||Some assertions are supported with source citations, but not all.||2||Includes opinions. Provides no support for assertions. NOTE:0.5 points will be subtracted for each unsupported assertion (up to 4 pts).||0||/4|
|Cites sources using ONLYauthor sir names in the body of the paper. |
PleaseDO NOT include source titles in text.
|4||Cites sources using authors’ names and in some cases includes source/publication titles in text.||2||Includes the name of the article or publication in the body of the paper. NOTE: 0.5 points will be subtracted each time a source title is included in the body of the paper.||0||4/4|
|Includes information that specifically relates to the social injustice. Paraphrases the information in most of the paper. No more than 2 direct quotes or one long [>40 words] quote. Provides an explanation or expansion of thought after each quotation.||4||Includes information that does not relate to the social injustice. Includes 3-4 direct quotes or 2 short quotes and 1 long (>40 words). Strings quoted material together with little to no explanation or expansion.||2||Includes 5 or more direct quotes, and fails to explain the application of the quoted text to the issue.||0||4/4|
|Based on the thesis statement, synthesizes what the experts say about the injustice. Clearly describes howthe occurrences are an injustice by showing that standards/values are violated. Need to address Jesuit values.||8||Based on the thesis statement, lists what the experts say about the injustice, but does not synthesize. Minimally describes howthe occurrences are an injustice by showing that standards/ values are violated.||4||Does not address the injustice. Does not describe howthe occurrences are an injustice and does not show that standards/ values are violated.||1||6/8|
|Paragraphs w/o sources||–|
|Application to Nursing – 20 Points Possible||/28|
|Specifically appliesthe ANA standards to circumstances where the injustice occurs to attempt to alleviate the injustice. Offers tangible suggestions of actions nurses can take to alleviate the injustice.||10||Vaguely appliesthe ANA standards to circumstances where the injustice occurs to attempt to reduce the injustice. Offers vague suggestions of actions nurses can take to alleviate the injustice.||5||Does not applythe ANA standards to circumstances where the injustice occurs. Offers no actions nurses might take to alleviate the injustice.||0||5/10|
|Appliesat least one of the Jesuit values, and describes how living the value(s) nurses might be able to more fully adhere to the ANA ethical standards and alleviate the injustice.||10||Discusses the Jesuit values but does not indicate how nurses can applythose values and follow the ANA standards to minimize the injustice.||5||Does not discuss (apply) the Jesuit values at all toward methods to reduce the injustice.||0||/10|
|Paragraphs w/o sources||-2||-2|
|Conclusion – 10 Points Possible||/20|
|Uses the thesis to bring closure to the paper. Summarizes all the relevant information.||6||Brings closure to the paper, but does not summarize relevant information.||3||Does not include a conclusion paragraph.||0||/6|
|Presents conclusive information associated with the injustice without adding any new information.||4||Adds one piece of new information or concept.||2||Does not summarize the paper, or presents more than one piece of new information or concept.||0||/4|
|Paragraphs w/o sources||-2||-2|
|Grammar/Mechanics – 30 Points Possible||/10|
|Paper is organized, showing flow of ideas (good transitions), depth of knowledge & coverage of topic.||2||Paper includes some organization.||1||Paper is not organized.||0||1/2|
|Paper contains 0-2 college-level mechanics (grammar and spelling). Sentence structure is grammatically correct and understandable||5||Includes more than 2, but less than 5 college-level mechanics (grammar/spelling/ typographical) errors.||3||Includes more than 5 college-level mechanics (grammar/spelling/ typographical) errors.||0||3/5|
|Paper includes appropriate headings.||2||Paper has some headings.||1||Paper does not include headings.||0||2/2|
|Includes accurate in-text citations. For quoted material; 1) place quoted text inside quotation marks (or indented—long quotes), 2) includes citation, and 3) must include the page (pdf) or paragraph (HTML) number for quoted text from source.||4||Includes 1-2 in-text citation errors.||2||Includes more than two in-text citation errors.||0||4/4|
|Uses the standard LHSON cover page and applies APA 6thedition (<2 APA errors). The title page and reference page.||5||Paper contains 3-5 APA errors on the title page and reference page.||3||Paper contains more than 5 APA errors on the title page and reference page.||0||5/5|
|Submits a draft of paper to Turnitin® by due dates. 1%||1||Doesn’t submit draft paper to Turnitin® by due dates.||0||1/1|
|Paper and rubric are submitted to dropbox using submission criteria noted in student guide.||1||Paper submitted to dropbox not using submission criteria noted in student guide.||0||1/1|
|Paper must be turned in to smarthinking or writing center at least 2 business days prior to paper due date to allow proper time for feed-back and incorporation of writing coach suggestions into paper.||10||Paper turned into smarthinking or writing center and only incorporates some of the suggested changes.||5||Paper not submitted to smarthinking or writing center or report not submitted with paper. Or student does not incorporate feedback from smarthinking or writing center into paper.||0||10/10|
|Grammar Grader Total (Compared with totals from above)||/30|
|Paper must be submitted on time. Five (5) points will be deducted for each day assignment is late per instructor’s discretion.|
Paper Grade: % = Points (15 possible)
Guidelines for Grammar Grading
|POINTS DEDUCTED||APA FORMAT||GRAMMAR||TYPO’S|
|1||2 errors||1 error||3 errors|
|2||4 errors||2-3 errors||4 errors|
|3||6 errors||4 errors||5 errors|
|4||8 errors||5-9 errors||6 errors|
|6||10 errors||10-14 errors||7 errors|
|7||12 errors||15-17 errors||8 errors|
|8||14 errors||18-20 errors||9 errors|
|9||16 errors||21-25 errors||10 errors|
|10||18 errors||>26 errors||>11 errors|
|10||PAGE LIMIT UNDER OR OVER BY ONE PAGE (<3 or >5 pages)|
|5% per day x 5 days; 10% per day thereafter. >7 Days Late = 0||LATE SUBMISSIONS|
Ardelt, M., & Friedman, H. L. (2015). Social justice issues in gerontology and psychology. In C. V. Johnson, & H. L. Friedman (Eds.), The Praeger handbook of social justice and psychology (pp. 191-223). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Kleba, P., & Falk, N. (2014). The Elder Justice Act. American Journal of Nursing, 114(9), 65-68.
Rosen, T., Lachs, M., Teresi, J., Eimicke, J., Van Haitsma, K., & Pillemer, K. (2016). Staff-reported strategies for prevention and management of resident-to-resident elder mistreatment in long-term care facilities. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 28(1), 1-13.
Wiesel, T. W., & Weinberger, M. I. (2015). Psychosocial issues in an elderly minority population. In J. C. Holland, T. W. Wiesel, C. J. Nelson, A. J. Roth, & Y. Alici (Eds.), Geriatric psycho-oncology: A quick reference on the psychosocial dimensions of cancer symptom management (pp. 145-151). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.