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Leadership approaches imply different theoretical rationales and components that form the overall management concept. As components that need to be taken into account, Mittal and Elias (2016) consider the variables of content and context. In the first case, situations are identified in which the characteristic signs of leadership appear. The variables of context manifest when a new form of relationship among managers and subordinates arises.
As Bachrach and Mullins (2019) note, the main elements of the global mindset are the three forms of capital – intellectual, psychological, and social. The role of culture is also significant, and Mittal and Elias (2016) mention contingency variables that are included in the theory of contingency leadership. This concept includes those mechanisms that influence such indicators as diligence, productivity, and other aspects of work activity (Bachrach & Mullins, 2019). The role of culture in this theory is high since communication within a contingency approach is an essential attribute of interaction.
In order to evaluate the features of leader-subordinate relationships, it is possible to apply a special model of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. According to Thanetsunthorn and Wuthisatian (2018), these dimensions are power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and masculinity. Based on their study, only two components of the model can have the greatest negative effect – power distance and masculinity, “whereas individualism and uncertainty avoidance have no significant impact” (Thanetsunthorn & Wuthisatian, 2018, p. 1139).
For instance, in companies with a vertical management system, the interaction of leaders with subordinates will be less productive if masculine culture is maintained. As Thanetsunthorn and Wuthisatian (2018) remark, uncertainty avoidance is a more useful strategy to communicate effectively. Therefore, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are to be taken into account when discussing the features of leader-subordinate relationships.
Using Social Media to Promote Social Justice
The role of social media is significant in addressing the issues of inequality and promoting justice. One of the examples of activities aimed at drawing attention to such problems is the annual organization of a special event dedicated to the struggle for social justice in Canada – Media Democracy Day (MDD). According to Skinner, Hackett, and Poyntz (2015), students from local universities are the most active participants in this event. In the focus of the members of volunteer groups, media-related problems are raised, in particular, racial prejudices and the lack of appropriate support for minorities that are under pressure in social networks.
Another example of such targeted work is the activity conducted by students and having specific ideological overtones. Baker-Bell, Stanbrough, and Everett (2017) note that the involvement of a large number of stakeholders in the dissemination of important information on the need for equality is one of such initiatives. This approach is implemented through social networks successfully enough, and the members of a large community “produce counternarratives, express their opinions, voice their concerns, and locate more reliable news and information about the Black community” (Baker-Bell et al., 2017, p. 137).
This principle of interaction allows students to draw as much attention as possible to the issue under consideration and find ways of conveying their position to the public. In general, social media promotes student activism because this group of the population forms the prevailing number of Internet users, and it is easier for them to discuss particular problems in this environment.
With regard to the areas of management and business, this position may be used as one of the samples of career guidance. The leaders of individual organizations can use the principle of disseminating information to the target audience, in particular, subordinates through the modern forms of communication. Business approaches may also imply using online platforms actively for advertising and selling products, which makes the field of social media relevant and meaningful.
Bachrach, D. G., & Mullins, R. (2019). A dual-process contingency model of leadership, transactive memory systems and team performance. Journal of Business Research, 96, 297-308. Web.
Baker-Bell, A., Stanbrough, R. J., & Everett, S. (2017). The stories they tell: Mainstream media, pedagogies of healing, and critical media literacy. English Education, 49(2), 130-152.
Mittal, R., & Elias, S. M. (2016). Social power and leadership in cross-cultural context. Journal of Management Development, 35(1), 58-74. Web.
Skinner, D., Hackett, R., & Poyntz, S. R. (2015). Media activism and the academy, three cases: Media Democracy Day, open media, and NewsWatch Canada. Studies in Social Justice, 9(1), 86-101. Web.
Thanetsunthorn, N., & Wuthisatian, R. (2018). Cultural configuration models: Corporate social responsibility and national culture. Management Research Review, 41(10), 1137-1175. Web.