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Socio-Cultural analysis of Turkey Research Paper


Customs, traditions, manners and habits

The history of Turkey indicates that jewellery was admired since Sultan Ottoman’s era. Sultan Ottoman used to give his favourable wife jewellery (Poyrazli, 2003; Renda, & Kortepeter, 1986). The jewellery at that time was long earring, big necklace, and bracelet or head jewellery.

The best gift for young Turkey female was jewellery. Young girls received jewellery from their parents, grandparents or family friends on different occasions.

There is a tradition in Turkey which requires the bride to show her jewellery to female friends in in-laws to demonstrate her status and social position. Collecting jewellery is also considered an investment and a sign of safety that can be used in financial crisis.

Beliefs and superstitions will have an impact on the jewellery shop. The shop will be opened in a location that will attract Turkish customers. It is believed that Turkish women who walk under a ladder have higher chances of encountering bad luck in their daily lives (Poyrazli, 2003).

The jewellery shop will be opened in a building that will not involve women walking under a ladder. It is expected that the business will have low sales on the 13th day of every month because the day is associated with bad luck in Turkey.

Core values, norms, and attitudes relating to foreign and domestic products

Turkey has had a good history of attracting travellers and foreigners. The waves of migration experienced in Turkey left a rich cultural heritage in the country (Arends-Tóth & van de Vijver, 2004; Fisek & Kagitcibasi, 1999). This history will be important for the establishment of the new jewellery shop.

Since Turkish people are warm and welcoming to foreigners, it is expected that they will appreciate and buy the jewellery products to be sold in the shop (Arends-Tóth & van de Vijver, 2004; Baxter & Stockman, 1989).

Countries which do not welcome foreigners have a few business operated by foreign people (Wright & Ricks, 1994). Countries which do not attract foreign investors increase the level of product and service competition among foreign and local companies (Canova & Dellas, 1993).

Social institutions (family life, educational institutions, and class systems)

In the modern world, the middle class has become significant through its ideologies and anticipations (Oswald, 1999). In Turkey, the middle class is about 59% of all classes in the country (Ayata, 2002). The jewellery products will be targeting the middle class in Turkey.

The products will be strategically positioned to attract the middle class because it has been shown that the group is buying both basic goods and luxurious products (Ayata, 2002). A good number of the Turkish people are educated. Thus, the advertising will encompass both pictures and texts.

Aesthetics (colours, music, and symbolism)

Turkish people enjoy good music. Therefore, the jewellery shop will be playing music in low volume to ensure that business negotiations will be audible. The jewellery products will be in colours that are appreciated by the majority people in the country. Features will also be chosen based on some forms of symbolism.

Business customs (protocols, greetings, punctuality, space, gift-giving, hospitality, and negotiations)

People working in the jewellery shop will be welcoming customers into the shop by greeting them. They will have to shake hands with customers because this is a business culture in Turkey (Horrocks & Kolinsky, 1996). They will shake hands first with the elderly because that is what their culture demands. It is a show of respect for the elderly in the society.

In some instances, they will hug the customers walking into the shop. Greetings will go a long way in creating the first impression which might make customers purchase jewellery products. The corporate culture in Turkey requires a high degree of punctuality (Horrocks & Kolinsky, 1996). Therefore, the business opening and closing hours will be strictly followed.

The shop attendants will be giving customers some business gifts as a way of appreciating their purchasing efforts. This culture of giving gifts is rooted in the corporate settings of Turkey.

When invited for a party in Turkey, the shop attendants and managers might discuss business matters during the meal (Horrocks & Kolinsky, 1996). However, they will first have to assess the environment for them to initiate business talks.

Evaluation of Turkey using Hofstede’s four dimensions and comparisons to the UAE business culture

The Hofstede’s four dimensions could be used to analyse how the jewellery products will fair in Turkey. Turkish people adopt collectivistic lives (it has a score of 37), i.e. people value living in groups and not in separate units (Fikret, Kabasakal & Bodur, 2001; Goregenli, 1995).

Therefore, the jewellery shop will target groups of people and not individuals. The shop operators will practise high levels of harmony and loyalty because the collectivistic groups demand that business people be loyal and harmonious. The shop operators will also avoid any public confrontation because this would result in loss of customers to business competitors.

Turkey has a score of 66 on power distance (Hofstede, 1983). This means that relationship between employees and managers are formal. There are too many hierarchical levels in large power distance and subordinates depend on their managers’ decisions. It is, therefore, expected that leaders will be purchasing more expensive jewellery products than their juniors.

Turkey has a score of 85 on uncertainty avoidance dimension (Hofstede, 1983). This explains the needs for regulations and rules. The employees of the shop should avoid conducting uncertain business transactions. This approach is commonly practised in Turkey.

Turkey has a score of 45 on the masculinity / femininity dimension which means that it has high femininity and low masculinity (Hofstede, 1983). This could mean that Turkey society focuses on relationships and has a concern for others.

In comparing Turkey with United Arab Emirates using Hofstede’s four dimensions, it is shown that two dimensions are similar while the other two are different. The power distance is higher in UAE than in Turkey, which indicates that in UAE employees depend more on their managers’ decisions and their relationships are more formal than in Turkey.

It has also been noted that UAE is more towards masculinity than Turkey. There are many similarities between United Arab Emirates and Turkey as shown in the Hofstede’s dimensions. The similarities are will help AMRJ Company to sell internationally without facing critical differences in culture.

References

Arends-Tóth, J., & van de Vijver, F. J. (2004). Domains and dimensions in acculturation: Implicit theories of Turkish–Dutch. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 28(1), 19-35.

Ayata, S. (2002). The new middle class and the joys of suburbia. Fragments of culture: The everyday of modern Turkey, 1(1), 25-42.

Baxter, M., & Stockman, A. C. (1989). Business cycles and the exchange-rate regime: some international evidence. Journal of monetary Economics, 23(3), 377-400.

Canova, F., & Dellas, H. (1993). Trade interdependence and the international business cycle. Journal of International Economics, 34(1), 23-47.

Fikret Pasa, S., Kabasakal, H., & Bodur, M. (2001). Society, organisations, and leadership in Turkey. Applied Psychology, 50(4), 559-589.

Fisek, G. O., & Kagitcibasi, C. (1999). Multiculturalism and psychotherapy: The Turkish case. Multiculturalism as a fourth force, 1(1), 75-90.

Goregenli, M. (1995). Individualism collectivism orientations in the Turkish culture: A preliminary study. Turk Psikoloji Dergisi, 10(35), 1-14.

Göregenli, M. (1997). Individualist-collectivist tendencies in a Turkish sample. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 28(6), 787-794.

Hofstede, G. (1983). National cultures in four dimensions: A research-based theory of cultural differences among nations. International Studies of Management & Organization, 13(1), 46-74.

Horrocks, D., & Kolinsky, E. (Eds.). (1996). Turkish culture in German society today. New York, NY: Berghahn Books.

Oswald, L. R. (1999). Culture swapping: Consumption and the ethnogenesis of middle- class Haitian immigrants. Journal of Consumer Research, 25(4), 303-318.

Poyrazli, S. (2003). Validity of Rogerian Therapy in Turkish Culture: A Cross‐Cultural Perspective. The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 42(1), 107-115.

Renda, G., & Kortepeter, C. M. (Eds.). (1986). The Transformation of Turkish culture: the Atatürk legacy. Kingston, MA: Kingston Press.

Wright, R. W., & Ricks, D. A. (1994). Trends in international business research: Twenty- five years later. Journal of International Business Studies, 25(4), 687-701.

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IvyPanda. (2019, April 23). Socio-Cultural analysis of Turkey. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/socio-cultural-analysis-of-turkey-research-paper/

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IvyPanda. "Socio-Cultural analysis of Turkey." April 23, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/socio-cultural-analysis-of-turkey-research-paper/.

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IvyPanda. 2019. "Socio-Cultural analysis of Turkey." April 23, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/socio-cultural-analysis-of-turkey-research-paper/.

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IvyPanda. (2019) 'Socio-Cultural analysis of Turkey'. 23 April.

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