According to Lalley and Gentile (2009), having very clear objectives is one of the important components of the learning process. In this regard, the teacher should have clear goals that serve as the guidelines for the learning process. The goals will help the teacher to be in a position to have an understanding of whether the learning process has been successful or not. It has been postulated that there are three components of the objectives namely- conditions, behavior and criterion.
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Conditions refer to the material that the students will either be availed or not availed with when the objective will be assessed. Behavior refers to the activity that will be manifested by the students after the learning process.
Criterion is the standard that is used as a measure to determine whether or not the learning objectives have been accomplished in the learning process. These three components of the objectives are very critical in enhancing the learning process, and ensuring that the students grasp the concepts that are taught (Lalley and Gentile, 2009).
Learning Goal 1
In the first goal, the students will be taught how to write the nouns in plural. In this regard, the students will be taught on how to use the suffixes –s and –ies.
The objectives of this learning goal will be to equip the learners with the skills that will enable them to recognize the plural forms. Moreover, the learners should also learn how to add the suffix –s to nouns in order to make them plural. At the end of the lesson, the learners should be in a position to read and form plurals that end with the suffix –es.
Additionally, the learners should be able to make a distinction between those nouns that require the use of suffix –s to make them plural, and those that require the use of the suffix –es. For this reason, the learners should know that the nouns that end with ss, x, ch, or sh should end with the suffis –es in their plural forms. On the other hand, those nouns that end in y must change the y to an i and add –es.
The standard that will be addressed in this session will be the WI DPI Standard (R6). This standard outlines the objectives of the learning process. It can be used as the benchmark against which the learning process is evaluated in order to find out whether the learning process had been successful or not.
This standard set it that the learners must demonstrate the ability to listen, read, view, and the most appropriate thinking strategies and techniques. This goal will be achieved since the students will be in a position to identify words that are in plural form and those that are in singular. This will have an impact in influencing the way that they read these words (Nemec and Bussema, 2010).
Analysis of the learning goals
In this lesson, the learning goal was to teach the students how to read and write nouns in plural. This is critical since it enables the students to communicate effectively. In this regard, the students can make a distinction between the words in plural form and those in singular. This will enable them to accurately communicate their ideas, which is one of the goals of this standard. In addition, this will enable them to distinguish those nouns that use the suffix –es and those that use suffix –s in their plural form.
Learning Goal 2
In the second goal, the learners will be taught how to develop, use, and adapt the language according to the context and purpose. For example, the learners will be in a position to use vocabulary in the right contexts. In this lesson the teacher will make use of flashcards to ensure that the learners gain an understanding of the various vocabularies. The teacher will start with the introduction of the concept of the multi-meaning words. As a result, the students will learn that homophones are words that sound similar but have different meanings.
The learners will be expected to show that they understand the use of words with multiple meanings. Additionally, the learners should learn how to define and identify homographs. In addition, the leaner will be equipped with the necessary skills that will enable them to develop, use, and adapt language in accordance to the context and purpose.
The standard addressed
The goal in this lesson is to enable the learners to select the most appropriate words to use in a variety of settings. This is in line with the standards as outlined in WI DPI Standard (E2). This standard has it that the learners should be equipped with the right skills to enable them to develop, use, and adapt language according to context and purpose. The goal of this learning activity is to ensure that the aims of this standard are achieved.
Analysis of the goal
This goal is very important since the learner will be equipped with the right skills that will enable him to communicate effectively. Failure to select the most appropriate words in a variety of settings will result to a scenario whereby the students might not be in a position to be understood by the recipients of their messages. The learners should be in a position to communicate effectively using the right words and phrases in a way that do not distort the intended meaning.
Learning goal 3
In this goal, the learners will be expected to develop their fluency when communicating using the English language. Consequently, the learners will be in a position to use the right diction, intonation and emphasis when communicating. To ensure that this goal is achieved, the teacher will be expected to facilitate a session whereby all the learners will be given an opportunity to read out aloud. In this case, the learners will be expected to manifest the appropriate intonation, phrasing, expression, and rate.
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The first objective will be to ensure that the learners are fluent while communicating with others. In this regard, the learners should use the correct intonation, emphasis and diction that will help them to communicate effectively. The teacher should stress the importance of reading every word accurately or correctly. Consequently, when the student does not read a word in the right way, the teacher should encourage him to reread in order to clarify the meaning of that sentence. In so doing, the students will improve on their reading skills.
The standard addressed in this lesson is the WI DPI Standard (R6). The major objective of this standard is fluency. In this regard, the students should be in a position to select and apply the listening, reading, viewing, visual representation, and thinking strategies and techniques. This will enable the students to have the right diction, intonation and emphasis that are required to communicate effectively.
Analysis of the goal
Having the right diction, intonation and emphasis will have the effect of helping the students to communicate effectively. This is because failure to pronounce the words the right way could have the effect of distorting the meaning of the words, and by extension the message that is being communicated. By directing the students to reread the words that they may have mispronounced, the teacher will be impressing on the students to always read and pronounce the words in the right way.
Learning Goal 4
In this goal, the role of the teacher will be to equip the learner with the right skills to enable them to understand the context and the applicability of the text to the contemporary settings.
The students will be expected to be in a position to identify the characters in the story. In addition, the learners will be expected to understand the setting of the story. This will entail understanding the plot of the story, and where possible relate it to the events that are taking places in the current world.
The standard that are addressed
The standards that are addressed in this lesson are highlighted in WI DPI Standard (R4). The major goal of this standard is to promote the comprehension capabilities of the students.
For this reason, the students should be taught how to acquire, organize, analyze, interpret, and evaluate text objectives. This is because there is a very big difference between reading for pleasure and reading for understanding. By understanding, the learners will be in a position to retain much of the information that they come across while reading books (Jiang and Elen, 2011).
Analysis of the goals
Sometimes, the students read books for the purpose of enjoyment and not necessarily to understand the issues that are portrayed therein. However, this lesson will help the learners to have an appreciation of the role of literature in pointing out the issues that take place in the current world. When the student are taught ways of ensuring that they understand fiction, they will be in a position to relate the issues that are highlighted and those that reflect what happens in the contemporary world.
To enhance the efficiency of the teaching method used, the teacher will explain the elements of fiction. Students are supposed to learn the themes and setting of the story. Moreover, they are expected to learn the plot and the point of view. By having a better grasp of those concepts, the students will be well equipped to understand the stories that they read, and identify the issues that are portrayed (Jiang and Elen, 2011).
It has been postulated that the objectives are very important in the learning process. This is because they help the teacher in defining the learning outcomes. Additionally, objectives ensure that the teachers are focused in their teaching sessions to ensure that the students get the maximum benefits for the learning process.
Additionally, these learning objectives help in clarifying, organizing, and prioritizing the learning process (Jiang and Elen, 2011). The objectives are important in evaluating how well the students have understood the concepts as well as giving them a chance to learn on their own.
Jiang, L., & Elen, J. (2011). Why do learning goals (not) work: a reexamination of the hypothesized effectiveness of learning goals based on students’ behaviour and cognitive processes. Educational Technology Research & Development, 59(4), 553-573.
Lalley, J. P., & Gentile, J. (2009). Classroom Assessment and Grading to Assure Mastery. Theory into Practice, 48(1), 28-35.
Nemec, P. B., & Bussema, E. (2010). Learning Objectives. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 33(4), 328-330.