Diversity at work is one of the most important aspects of a successful business. In the organization, one of the most important types of diversity is the different gender (male and female). Having different genders working side by side at work is one way of balancing the needs of income and outcome of work. In this balance will not be effective if we don’t have a successful way to negotiate our needs in the organization so as to be able to reach our goals (Bartáková, 2010, p. 193).
We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Successful Negotiation in Business specifically for you
301 certified writers online
Gender diversity is also one of the modern society needs in work and has become very important for the organization’s growth. This is in the division of a modern society having first started in the western societies. This was as a result of the growth of women’s education where women began earning bachelor’s degrees in greater numbers than their male counterparts (Eagly & Carli, 2007).
Presently, women earn 57% of all bachelor’s degrees handed out, 59% of all master’s, 48% of PhDs, 49% of law degrees, and 42% of MBAs (Eagly & Carli, 2007, p. 76). Women become more workers hence increasing division of gender at the work. It all started in the western societies and that is after women had a growth in their education thus being more likely to work and support their families (Bartáková, 2010, p.194).
So as to have a better understanding on the organization process we have to understand the way genders negotiate at work. This is because negotiation is the key to having a successful business and for that it is very important to understand gender behavior in negotiation. The main aim is to reach the best deal and target in our negotiations as well as how gender statues have an effect on their behavior in the negotiation, and how different genders behave about knowing how to reach the agreement successfully or can’t control the situation.
At the same time, they will know how the different genders will be able to communicate with the verbal communication effectively and the cause behind having dysfunctional in the negotiation agreement (Bowles and Flynn, 2010, p.772). To be able to understand more on the business we have to know the meaning behind negotiations. Well, negotiation is the most important social behavior in the business and in the work place.
In order to have successful negotiation we have to understand the different gender behavior in the work place and the way they react to word social infraction and negotiation based of fare as well as equity between men and women. Sociologists have studied how women react towards social interaction based on their character and how that will influence their behavior in work place and especially in negations.
Research has shown that the gender of the negotiator has a huge influence on the outcome of the negotiation (Amanatullah and Morris, 2010, p.257). research also shows that women have a different reactions toward some type of business negotiation, depending on the type of business that they are negotiating at especially when this type of jobs are usually dominated by men such as business in automobile or in engineering or house constriction.
For many different resin first is the way that negotiation of their type of jobs , and second that is because of the culture or belief that women’s ability to understand this type of work will make her less wanted to be listened too or talk with in the that type of work negotiation. They are also more likely to trust and talk to men to negotiate with (Amanatullah& Morris, 2010, p. 258).
The definition of negotiation
For women to have a successful negotiation in the work place they have to understand the fundamental knowledge of the negotiation the definition of negotiation is “conferring with other opponent that is for reaching an agreement”(Berlin,2008, p. 14).
There are different steps that will make women be able to negotiate in work place very successfully. they have to understand the target for the negotiation and have to be focused on one goal which is having the best alternative from the negotiation the second step is to setup as the BATNA (best alternative to a negotiation agreement ) (Lewicki et al,2009, p. 107).
This is because it is the most important definition for the successful negotiation, by having focuses on the value then focuses on the point of the negotiation and have to reach the higher and most of the outcome from the negotiation (Berlin, 2008, p. 15)
Mental Models in Negotiation
A lot of negotiation success is about the mental and expressing the background around expecting the other person’s negotiation or to reach an agreement or non-agreement in the negotiation. It is also the culture and the society background to have a big effect on having a successful negotiation, the thing that is the partner negotiating at could reach an agreement if mentally and culturally accepted.
They should not reach an argument if the subject they are negotiating about is not accepted. It is also a shared interest in a subject of the negotiation to have a big impact of accepting and reaching the agreement and having the best BATNA in the negotiation (Bazerman, 2000, p.279)
Gender and Persistence in Negotiation
Studying gender behavior in the work place is very important because it has a huge impact on the organization development. The different gender working in the negotiation is an important resource for the diversity work force in the organization (Bowles& Flynn, 2010, p. 774).
Get your first paper with 15% OFF
There is a big different on the effect of the gender in the negotiation in the work place and the impact and the facture of the negotiation, the challenge that women face in the negotiation is sex stereotypic and the perspective of women negotiating in the work place that is because they believe that women are more naysayer in the negotiation more than men, that will make it difficult to reach an agreement or make it essayer to reach the BATNA in the negotiation.
In the other hand anther study have shown that the naysayers in the negotiation is not related to the gender but is related of the type of negotiation and how they employees male or female function in work. It is very important to understand how gender behavior persistence in negotiation and how different genders are having the motivation to continue the negotiation and reaching the last agreement in a very professional and satisfying way, for both sides , and how different gender will be having the different way and behave to reach the agreement (Bowles& Flynn,2010, p. 775).
When we compare men to women in the negotiation we find that women and man have a different type of behavior depending on the gander that they are negotiation with (the gender of the opponent). Research has shown that the type of speech that women use with men is more low statues speech style, lower that the type of speech women would use with women that is negotiating with (women with women).
At the same time, studies have shown that when it comes to negotiation between different gender women are more influent when talking to men than when she talks to fellow women. Also the study has shown that men are less likely to change their speech style when it comes to negotiating with different genders. The reason behind women having different types of speech in negotiating with different gender is because men historically have been working more longer than women and second is because of the shift of the social statues for woman in the culture and how this has influenced their behavior towards different gender( Bowles& Flynn,2010, p. 775).
Challenges women face in negotiation
The most common challenge that women face in work is that of negotiating for their rights in their work place. One of their important rights is the women’s annual salary as a full time working is more less than the men full time working salary ,but this percentage has increased in the last 10 years, from 60% less than the men salary tell 80% less.
Despite the fact that the percentage has increased it still less than the men’s salary and a lot of women in the work place have reached to have the same men acceptation (job) but with less salary. The reason behind this is a lot of women do not ask or negotiate for more and they feel happy with what they have. Since they do not have the courage to ask for more and or negotiate for a better salary women stay in a lower income as compared to a man of the same job but willing to ask and negotiate their mangers for more salary.
The other reason that women do not negotiate for a higher salary is because they feel that they will undervalue their service and they think that they don’t deserve more. that would make them less comfortable to negotiate for a higher salary but on the other side men will feel that they are doing more than they have to do in the work and they deserve to have more salary (Craver, 2004, p. 1104).
The other challenge that women face in the organization specifically against women who have families and children men in the organization as a manger will have this image or idea about these women as not to being able to handle a lot of responsibility. This is because they have to take care of their children and take a lot of day off to be able to take their children to school or hospital, so men as a manager will not be able to believe there able to work effectively or to negotiate effectively (Denker, 2009, p. 105)
The different between men and women in the negotiation
In the organization there is a lot of questioning about whether the men or women are the best negotiator, and the recent of researches have shown that gender is not the effective way to identify between good negotiations. However, there is a specific type of negotiation that can show the different outcome forms of negotiation by men and by women that is there is a limited opportunities or the negotiation is not clear, or if their an ambiguous situation such as in ” telecommunications, real estate, health services, and media” (Pradel, Bowles, and McGinn, 2006, p. 2).
In the negotiation that will show the different behavior between the man and women in the business negotiation. But by understanding there functions and knowing the advantages and the disadvantages we will be more able to have more equity in negotiation Opportunities for both men and women in the workplace (Pradel, Bowles, & McGinn, 2006, p. 3).
Having these differences it could create a different in the both men and women for the long team in the organization in the negotiation when both parties have unclear understanding the ambiguity of the negotiation will increases and when the ambiguous in the negotiation is very high the different between the male and the female in the negotiation will be very clear and they will have a different performance and different outcome for the negotiation (Pradel, Bowles, & McGinn, 2006, p. 1)
But on the other hand in a situation with a low ambiguity in the negotiation three will be a high understanding for the situation and a high performance from a male and a female and also in some situation well find a very high performance from female or a high performance by male individually that is depending on the subject that they are negotiating at.
But also in a competitive work environment men are more likely to perform very well better than women because mostly women stumble in a competitive situation (Pradel, Bowles, & McGinn, 2006, p.6). Females have a different way to negotiate researchers have found that women is very successful when the negotiation for when the benefit is for another person such as negotiating for a children right as an example (Pradel, Bowles, & McGinn, 2006, p.1).
Since both of male and female are successful in negotiation but every side have either own strength in a way for negotiation (Pradel, Bowles, & McGinn, 2006)
How to have a high benefit of gender differences in negotiation
There are some factors that we have to fallow to have the higher benefit from both genders. When there is some ambiguity in the negotiations, we have to avoid having behavior that may accrue naturally from a man or from women. In other words control you behavior male or female.
For example in a competitive negotiation men are more likely to have it too serious and have and try to maximize their outcome, in the other hand women more likely represent or defend other people such as colleagues’ department. So men and women have more control for their behavior in the negotiations (Pradel, Bowles, & McGinn, 2006, p.6).
The other thing in the negotiation no matter if you are a man or a woman you have to do your homework and learn about what you can get benefits from the negotiation. It is more likely to be when negotiating for a salary, do your investigation ask others who are already employees about the benefits. The most important is never be afraid to ask or search for the right information that to get you motivated and to make you have the best notations and best benefit that you could reach (Pradel, Bowles, & McGinn, 2006, p. 4).
The managers in the company have to create transparency when it comes to salary and benefits in the work place and that is by having a clear published benefits for both male and female that the company is offering as well as having a standard of issue and negotiations in a very fair way for all employees with different gender (Pradel, Bowles, & McGinn, 2006, p. 5)
Set a clear expectation for the employee’s performance. When employees have sent to a negotiation with a clear expectation and clear goals they will be able to be more confident both male and female and more likely to accept the last agreement and both male and female will reach the best outcome from the negotiation. Having this clarity in the negotiation is more likely to help women in a negotiation especially when it is an ambiguous and competitive satiation in the negotiation (Pradel, Bowles, & McGinn, 2006, p. 4)
What will women do to be a better negotiator?
If we want women to me more successful in the negotiation we have to understand women’s sociology and how she behaves. Women are more likely to be emotional in there normally but how can she control her emotions? (Pradel, Bowles, & McGinn, 2006, p. 5.). The most important thing when facing difficult time in the negotiation Is not to be emotional and react back to the situating, stop for a moment and take a time out from the situation, stand behind and rethink about the situation and look at is as an objective by having giving yourself a time out.
This way you are more likely to sprite your emotion from the situation and by that you are more likely to think about it wisely to reach your BATNA (Pradel, Bowles, & McGinn, 2006, p.6). Since women are more emotional we have to know and understand that may make them emotional in the negotiation. Women have to know what her hot buttons “emotional susceptibilities” is you are more likely to be aware if the other person is trying to make you reach this part of your personality.
And by recognizing your hot buttons you are more likely to be able to control your emotion. This is very important to be successful in a competitive station and interments in the organizations (Pradel, Bowles, & McGinn, 2006, p. 5). In a situation where you want to think you could pause and think the best way to do that is to learn the conversation to the other opponent and make them do the talk so you could have your time to rethink about the situation (Pradel, Bowles, & McGinn, 2006, p.4).
And when the station needs more time to think you can do that by playing it back and slowing the conversation and that by saying to your opponent to review again the main point that the negotiation is all about. And if you need more time to think about the situation, ask for time out from the negotiation go out rethink and renew your ideas again and have a better way to control your emotions (Pradel, Bowles, & McGinn, 2006, p. 8).
You have to be very aware when the situation is a bit ambiguous and there are a lot of emotional pressure on you to agree in the siltation don’t agree because of the pressure that you are facing in the situation but and don’t make the agreement on the spot have another time out retching and make the diction and go back again to the negotiation table and give the agreement that will make you more likely to reach your BANTA (Ury, 1993, p. 209).
Understanding how to control your emotion has a big impact on having a successful negotiation. You have to know how to protect yourself because reaching an agreement in the business. This is an important deal and you will have a huge understanding of your opponent’s position in the argument for the negotiation and that will make you full in the trap of wanting to agree and have a fast end for the situation and that may make your reach a deal that you are not fully satisfied with.
So to avoid that, you have to understand your “bottom line” that means the negotiator should try to protect themselves by having a list of the worst acceptable agreement they could reach. So being able to understand your bottom line that will make you able to understand when you reach the bottom-line list you have to shut your ears and never accept the agreement because that means that you will be losing the negotiation.
And never get beneath agreement of your BATNA. So understanding your bottom line and your BATNA is the most important step for reaching a successful agreement (Fisher et al., 1991, p.99). At the end of the negotiation we have to have a more understanding on how to close the negotiation.
Academic Organization. Women & Language, 32(1), 103-112. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Bartáková, H. (2010). Gender Division of Work and the Labor Market Re-entry of the / William Ury. New York: Bantam Books, 1993.
Bazerman, M. H., & Curhan, J. R. (2000). Negotiation. Annual Review of Psychology, Become leaders. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
BOWLES, H., & FLYNN, F. (2010). GENDER AND PERSISTENCE IN NEGOTIATION: Cases. New York, NY: Mc Grow hill companies.
Craver, C. B. (2004). IF WOMEN DON’T ASK: IMPLICATIONS FOR BARGAINING. Czech Women after the Parental Leave. Sociologia, 42(3), 191-212. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Denker, K. J. (2009). Doing Gender in the Academy: The Challenges for Women in the Differences in assertive negotiating are mediated by women’s fear of backlash and attenuated when negotiating on behalf of others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(2), 256-267. doi:10.1037/a0017094
Fisher, R., Ury, W., & Patton, B. (1991). Getting to yes: negotiating agreement without Giving in / by Roger Fisher and William Ury, with Bruce Patton, editor New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books, 1991. Retrieved from UNIV OF LA VERNE’s Catalog database.
Lewicki, R., Saunders, D., Barry, B. (2009). Negotiation: Readings, exercises and Negotiation. Harvard business school.
Pradel, D, Bowles, H, & McGinn, K. (2006). When gender changes the Radiologists Journal, 59(1), 13-15. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.