The teaching group consists of 3 students who have a slight obesity state. The first student is 26 years old, the second student is 32 years old, and the third student is 28 years old. All of them have a different state of change which is predetermined by their age category, family background, and experience. The first student is at the stage of contemplation. He is aware of the physical state he has and he is ready to change within approximately 6 months. He also seeks support from his close friends and relatives as well as specific incentives contributing to changing his health behavior. The second participant is much older and is more concerned with his health state. He is at the stage of preparation, which means that the student is ready to take measures on preventing the consequences of obesity. A final participant is at the phase of pre-contemplation; she is not ready to make a shift to health promotion because she is unaware that any changes should be introduced to life.
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As it can be seen, all the students have different beliefs concerning their health promotion and, therefore, different approaches should be used to foster their improvement. Disparities in beliefs and attitudes to obesity can be predetermined by different factors, including social, cultural, and, economic ones that should be taken into the deepest considerations while introducing the teaching plan (Purnell & Paulanka, 2008). Special attention should also be paid to the students’ background that can affect their perception. For instance, education and social status can make individuals change their physical and symbolic community that no longer satisfies their needs. Additional pressure, therefore, can cause a number of stresses leading to problems with obesity (Bastable, 2008, p. 35). Significant pressure is often experienced by minority groups and I shall take this into account as well because the second student originates from a Hispanic ethnic group.
Before presenting a teaching plan within the identified context, the focus should be made on the Value Expectancy Model which is congruent with Prochanska’s model of behavior change because both are premised on behavioral patterns and beliefs of individuals (Norman et al. 2000, p. 27). Specifically, Norman et al. (2000) provide a theory of reasoned action describing a process of putting all information together to present a decision about a particular behavioral pattern. The model also suggests that “individuals…hold certain expectations and beliefs about the consequences of the behavior and about social norms regarding the behavior, and base their decisions on those expectations and beliefs” (Norman et al., 2000, p. 28). In this respect, the identified groups will be first interviewed to define their beliefs and outlook on health promotion to find out whether there are any deviations from norms as well as underpinnings making them think this way. The Value Expectancy Model is also closely connected with Pender’s model that is premised on three specific areas: individual experiences and characteristics, behavioral conditions and influences, and behavioral outcomes. In addition, the presented health promotion model assumes that all these three areas are possible to modify in the appropriate way by means of immediate health-promoting measures.
While implementing the above-proposed models of change, it should be stressed that the outcomes will largely depend on such aspects as education, social background, and individual preferences that are often influenced by cultural determinants. All these variables will be significant barriers to overcome while introducing the teaching plan. Nevertheless, if all students realize the outcomes of their lifestyles as well as outside tendencies of contemporary behavior patterns, they will manage to cope with the problem.
Bastable, S.B. (2008). Nurse as educator: Principles of teaching and learning for nursing practice (3rd ed.) Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Norman, P., and Abraham, C., and Conner, M. (2000).Understanding and Changing Health Behavior: from Health Beliefs to Self-Regulation. US: Psychology Press.
Purnell, L. D., & Paulanka, B. J. (2008). Transcultural health care: A culturally competent approach (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.