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Just war is the doctrine that has been based on the beliefs of the Roman and the catholic based military ethics. This is the doctrine that moral ethnologists and international lawmakers have studied. In this case, it has been seen that the conflicts that occur between the states undergoing war should cover all the aspects of religious, political, and philosophical justice.
Just war thinking belongs to the religious traditions of the West, especially the older forms of Christianity that were laid down in the fifth century. Started the legal approach to war began after the Second World War. Examples include the Nuremberg tribunal. Since this tribunal, it has been seen that the UN has passed a law against the use of any kind of force that can be counted as being non-defensive.
The wars have to be limited to the political goals that have been responsible for starting the wars, as the law states. Any unnecessary destruction caused by the war shall be counted in the unjust context. As soon as possible, all the gains have been achieved in the case of the political payments and the political measures, and the war should be brought to an end so that it does not cause any more trouble for the country s citizens. According to international laws, the people and their related properties are the ones that should be protected by all means, and no harm should be caused as these two are not part of the political gains.
Jus in Bello, in other words, has been known as justice in war. This is the guideline for continuing the fighting in war once the war has been declared in its official terms. In this case, it has been said that there is no moral in warfare, and therefore this is the case where the just war theory and the just war-related laws are the ones that are being negated here.
There has been an argument about the war that it is an immoral act. Thereby there are no legal limitations that can be implicated. In this case, the guidelines from Jus in Bello come into action by saying that the humanitarian laws are the ones that are to be applied here in this case in which it is to be made sure that during the war, military conduct has to be limited to some extent so that the war does not change into the merciless killing. Furthermore, Jus has given some additional clauses in Bello in which it has been said that the people responsible for the brutal war crimes are to be held for questioning in the courts.
In some cases, the Jus in Bello can be applied in insurgent warfare. As principal, the insurgent warfare is always aimed to be specific towards some rules, some people in the states who have been responsible for the insurgent wars as has been noticed in the case of the recent terrorism wave against the specific countries. Jus in Bello, in this case, has been bringing in the rules that this, in addition, has to be sad being unjust.
The states themselves reflect moral values, and it all depends upon how the state people think and how they can judge the world in their surroundings. Realism perspective has always been based on despair in case of progress and limited human possibilities. Conflicts have been a part of world politics. Decisions makers of the states have a little choice to combat these conflicts but to protect themselves and their countries in case of security purposes, status, and wealth. This is the situation that calls on for war and thus the merciless killing in many cases. In this case, the realists always take action by making changes in the policies as these are the ones that are regulated by the unbalanced competition from the states in different conditions.
Liberalists are the ones who are much more optimistic about human progress in this world, and thereby it says that gains in a coordinated manner can be achieved rather than using forces on the states. The goals, in this case, are to be completed within and across the societies in a friendly manner by taking into account the peace of an individual and the community, prosperity of the cultures and states, including institutions. In this, the liberal always thinks of the foreign policies as having the domestic incentives.
In the Marxist system, the people’s position in society is always based on the economic system provided to the people of the community. As the financial system is better, the people can have better statuses and have better conditions in their lives. This is the understaffing and the realization that can lead the people to have a just way of living. In this case, the moral fact that has been taken into account is that the economic systems have been balanced as the main factor that can lead the people to live in a balanced society in the financial system.
Since the event of Peace of Westphalia that occurred in 1648, there have been many changes in the international laws relating to just war. These are the laws related to using a global force for some purpose. During the changes in the rules, the basic guidelines for just war were replaced by international lawmakers. Here the continuity was built between the religious outlook of the Europeans on the war and the modern secular outlook of the states in the modern days.
Doyle, W. Michael. The Ways of War and Peace. Rolf Harris Productions Pty, Limited, 1996.
Walzer, Michael. Just and unjust wars: a moral argument with historical illustrations. Basic Books, 1977.