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The Implementation of WI-Fi Network in Rural Areas Research Paper


Abstract

This research paper assesses how wind belt-cantenna technology can be used in boosting the Wi-Fi network in rural areas. The paper evaluates the fundamental aspects that should be taken into account in the implementation process. First, the paper cites rural areas as one of the locations in which the Wi-Fi network can be enhanced using wind belt-cantenna technology. Secondly, the paper assesses the various stakeholders to be considered in the implementation process. The core stakeholders considered include schools, hospitals, community system-maintenance staff members, local telecommunications companies, local/national governments, and community representatives. Furthermore, the paper defines the basic concepts regarding technology. The methodology to be used in conducting the study is also outlined. Finally, recommendations on some of the issues to be considered in the implementation process are suggested.

Introduction

The telecommunication sector is undergoing transformation due to the increased adoption of technology across different countries. The liberalization of the telecommunications sector is one of the factors that have stimulated the adoption of technology (Fink, Mattoo & Rathindran, 2002). One of the telecommunication technologies, which are commonly applied, is Wi-Fi technology (Cruz-Cunha & Varajao, 2011). The increased adoption of information communication technologies has arisen from the need to alleviate barriers hindering socio-economic development in developing countries. Internet technology constitutes one of the fundamental components in accessing and sharing information, hence promoting a country’s economic growth.

Problem Statement

Most Wi-Fi networks in the US have been deployed in the metro areas and the major cities. This aspect arises from the view that the application of such technologies has been associated with a high degree of complexity. Brown, Hossain, and Nguyen (2009) posit that the distribution of telecommunication infrastructure has “been associated with big investment programs by large entities such as telecommunication operators and government agencies…these entities are able to amass sizeable capital and attain the necessary economies of scale involved in laying down copper wires and providing expensive switching capacity to the network” (p. 119).

Subsequently, some of the rural areas have been left out, which presents a significant gap in the country’s quest to achieve sustainable economic growth. The US economic growth is largely dependent on the extent to which the government implements equitable distribution of economic growth across the country. Galperin (2005) links better health, government services, increased productivity, and education to optimal deployment and adoption of Internet technology. However, the adoption of Internet technologies on a large scale remains a challenge due to the existence of diverse challenges particularly in areas outside the metro areas. Galperin (2005) affirms that a “combination of poor telecommunication infrastructure, low population density, inadequate regulation, and high-cost technologies designed for urban market makes Internet connectivity in many parts of the developing world a complex and costly proposition” (p. 47).

This assertion illustrates the existence of a major barrier to implementing ICT infrastructure such as wireless technology, viz. the Wi-Fi technology. Subsequently, the significance of incorporating an alternative solution in order to cater to the information needs should not be ignored. Galperin (2005) accentuates that to address “the information needs of the rural poor, the traditional technologies such as broadcast radio provide cost-effective alternatives” (p. 47). Thus, it is possible to boost ICT needs in the rural areas through the adoption of innovative technologies. One of the technologies that should be considered entails the wind belt-cantenna.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this research is to explore the implementation of the Wi-Fi network in rural areas using wind belt-cantenna technology. In order to achieve this objective, the study will focus on the null [H0] and the alternative hypothesis [H1].

H0: The implementation of wind belt-cantenna technology can improve the Wi-Fi signal in areas characterized by rugged terrain such as the rural areas.

H1: The wind belt-cantenna technology does not affect the Wi-Fi network signal.

Scope

This report emphasizes how wind belt-cantenna technology can be adopted in promoting the penetration of the Wi-Fi network in rural areas. The wind belt-cantenna technology will be used in powering the Wi-Fi transmitters especially in the rugged conditions found in rural areas. Thus, the report will evaluate how this technology can be applied in the different locations in rural areas, the stakeholders’ group, and their roles and responsibilities. The report further involves a comprehensive definition of technology by evaluating the most important specifics.

Locations

The implementation of wind belt-cantenna will target the widely dispersed communities in rural areas in the United States. Additionally, it will be ensured that the wind belt-cantennas are located on high raised grounds in rural areas. The high raised grounds will ensure that there is no obstruction to signal transmission. The implementation will initially target the rural districts in Ohio County. The decision to target these areas has arisen from the need to improve the efficiency of the Wi-Fi network transmission. The raised grounds will improve the effectiveness and efficiency with which the network is transmitted due to the potentially high wind velocity. Browning (2010) is of the opinion that using the wind belt technology will make it possible to exploit wind as a natural resource for improving the utilization of the Wi-Fi network in the rural areas in the US. Therefore, it will be easy for the wind belt-cantenna to capture the wireless networks using the radio waves.

Stakeholders Groups and their Roles and Responsibilities

Projects are implemented with the objective of benefiting a specific interest group. Therefore, evaluating the value attached to a particular project by the target stakeholder group comprises one of the metrics that project owners can use in assessing its relevance. Thus, the successful implementation of the wind belt-cantenna technology will depend on the collaboration developed between the project owners and the various stakeholders. Mamone (2006) cites the consideration of diverse stakeholder groups as a fundamental aspect of project implementation. Stakeholder involvement is essential because it promotes the acceptability of the intended project. One of the core stakeholders in the project is the rural residents.

The implementation of the Wi-Fi network in the targeted community will be irrelevant if the local residents do not appreciate or adopt the technology in addressing their information needs. Furthermore, the community will be charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the wind belt-cantenna infrastructure is protected.

Local Schools

The implementation of the wind belt-cantenna technology will improve the effectiveness and efficiency with which schools in rural areas enhance the learning environment using the Wi-Fi network. According to Marks (2007), some schools in Kent District have established a number of Internet kiosks in over six district schools. The Internet kiosks have been established through collaboration with local business organizations. The Internet kiosks provide a hotspot whereby students can surf the Internet. Davis (2015) is of the opinion that the idea “has made it possible for students, especially those living in poverty, to access the web away from school for their homework and research after school” (p. 61). Moreover, parents are in a position to interact with teachers regarding the students’ performance. Schools in rural areas have a duty to improve the learning environment by integrating the Wi-Fi network. However, they should consider the most cost-effective approach to implementing technology in order to make learning affordable to all. Galperin (2005) argues that the Wi-Fi technology “makes it an effective replacement for last-mile delivery as well as for backhaul traffic where the installation and maintenance costs of wired infrastructure are prohibitive” (p. 49). Thus, the adoption of wind belt-cantenna technology provides an opportunity that can promote the learning environment via Wi-Fi technology. Additionally, schools should ensure that students are in a position to utilize online learning programs and systems in order to derive value from the Wi-Fi network.

Local Hospitals

Hospitals have an obligation to ensure that they offer quality health care services. Achieving this goal requires hospitals to appreciate the importance of implementing ICT in their service delivery. However, the effectiveness with which the information communication technologies are implemented and utilized depends on the knowledge of the hospital staff. Therefore, hospitals are charged with the responsibility of undertaking extensive training for their staff on how to use Internet technologies, such as the Wi-Fi network, as a source of new knowledge.

This concept will play an essential role in assisting the medical staff in coping with the diverse medical issues faced in the field. This aspect will ensure that the hospital staff members are in a position to serve a large number of clients. For example, the hospital staff will be in a position to apply the concept of telemedicine. Galperin (2005) affirms that the application of the Internet has enabled individuals in Ghana to “share information on disease outbreaks” (p. 51). Thus, hospitals are in a position to manage health situations conveniently and efficiently. Therefore, the technology will improve service delivery amongst health care institutions in rural areas.

Community System Maintenance Staff

In order to implement the technology effectively, it is imperative for a community system-maintenance staff to be trained. The system maintenance staff will assist the locals in dealing with connectivity challenges after the implementation of the technology. This move will promote the continued usage of the technology.

Local Telecommunications Company

The local telecommunication companies will constitute a fundamental component in the implementation of wind belt-cantenna technology. First, the decision to consider the local telecommunication companies arises from the need to increase the rate of acceptability of the new technology. The rationale arises from the fact that the likelihood of the locals accepting a new initiative by the local company is relatively high due to the existing relationships between the companies and the residents.

Past studies show that optimal stakeholder engagement is essential in project implementation because it improves project acceptance (Maon, Kotler, Joelle & Lindgreen, 2012). Moreover, Maon et al. (2012) contend that integrating the local companies in the process of implementing the project plays an essential role in eliminating possible resistance. The local telecommunication companies will be charged with the responsibility of promoting the acceptability of the new wind belt-cantenna technology in fostering the Wi-Fi network. For example, the local companies will instill confidence in the local community regarding the safety issues associated with wind belt-cantenna technology. Therefore, the local companies will be charged with the responsibility of promoting a high degree of project acceptability by ensuring the security and confidentiality of the information being transmitted through the Wi-Fi network.

Earle (2005) emphasizes that wireless networks are subject to confidentiality threats. Thus, the local companies should enhance the security and integrity of the information by integrating effective encryption of the wireless network. Consequently, the likelihood of the technology being adopted by a large number of individuals in the local community will improve significantly.

The local companies will also be required to promote the efficiency of the wind belt-cantenna technology in sustaining the Wi-Fi network by ensuring that it is free from signal jamming. This aspect means that the collaboration with the local companies will play an essential role in protecting network abuse. Thomas (2004) affirms that authorized users can affect the integrity and efficiency of the Wi-Fi network negatively by using it in a manner that threatens the productivity of other parties on the same network.

Local and National Government

The implementation of wind belt-cantenna technology is aimed at promoting socio-economic development amongst the rural population. In a bid to achieve this goal, it is imperative to involve the relevant local and national authorities such as the state and federal governments. The local authorities will ensure that the implementation of the Wi-Fi technology does not compromise the country’s security systems such as the National Airspace System [NAS]. Goldman (2015) asserts that the NAS is interconnected extensively with the non-NAS systems, which increases the risk of security flaws. Moreover, the implementation of wind belt-cantenna technology will depend on whether the authorities provide the necessary licenses and platform. The government is responsible to ensure that the essential wind belt-cantenna technology infrastructure is located optimally in order to maximize utilization.

In addition to the above aspects, the local and national governments have a responsibility to increase the spectrum for the utilization of the Wi-Fi network amongst the ‘unlicensed’ users (Kamdar & Eckersley, 2013). The unlicensed spectrum promotes the utilization of the Wi-Fi network. Kamdar and Eckersley (2013) argue that increasing “the amount of unlicensed spectrum will lead to better functioning routers, tablets, laptops, and smartphones” (par. 3). Therefore, the input of the local and national governments is critical in ensuring that the implementation of the wind belt-cantenna technology in boosting the Wi-Fi network does not compromise other implemented systems.

Community Representative and Members

The new technology provides citizens with opportunities that contribute to the improvement in their lives (Vella, 2008). However, the extent to which the locals adopt the new technology depends on the understanding of the local community on the applicability and value of the technology. The inclusion of community representatives is a critical consideration in the implementation of wind belt-cantenna technology. Dinsmore and Cabanis-Brewin (2011) affirm that incorporating the user representatives in the planning process is vital to increasing the usability of the new technology. The community representatives will ensure that rural residents understand how wind belt-cantenna technology improves the Wi-Fi network, hence using the Internet for their economic and social development. Therefore, the community representatives and members will play an essential role in endorsing the wind belt-cantenna technology in improving network connectivity.

Technology Definition

The wind belt technology entails a technique used in generating electricity from the wind without depending on turbines. The technology is based on the aerodynamic phenomenon, which is referred to as the aero-elastic flutter. The wind belt can be modified by integrating the antenna technology in order to harness the Internet technology. Brandt (2004) asserts that the modified wind belt “can also be used for auxiliary applications such as powering up of Wi-Fi outdoor routers and switches” (p. 10).

The cantenna entails a homemade device that is used to boost signal strength. The device is made using cans to increase the area upon which the signal is received. The antenna is further comprised of a coaxial cable. Mohr (2010) asserts that the can function like a microwave, which captures, confines, and transmits the signal through the metallic walls of the can. The antenna can be adjusted easily in order to improve the reception of the signal (Anandhaprabakaran, Shanmugam, Sridhar & Ajaykumar, 2015). The incorporation of the two technologies, viz. the wind belt and the antenna technology will improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the Wi-Fi network significantly due to the signal strength. Therefore, its value to the local community will be improved considerably.

The WLAN Standard

The implementation of the wind belt-cantenna technology will take into account the wireless local area network [WLAN] standards as stipulated by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers [IEEE]. A number of standards comprised of the 802.11 families will be taken into account. These families of standards enable the application of the WLANs coupled with giving transmission speed of 1 to 2 megabytes per second using either the Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum [DSSS] or the Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum [FHSS]. One of the WLAN standards that will be considered is the 802.11g standard, which enables wireless LANs to offer high-speed transmission of up to 54 megabytes per second over short distances (Mitchell, 2015).

Operating System

In order to meet the Wi-Fi needs of the diverse rural residents using wind belt-cantenna technology, the concept of interoperability will be taken into account. Mamone (2006) asserts that interoperability ensures compatibility between the hardware and software components. Therefore, the functionality of wind belt-cantenna technology will improve considerably. The wind belt-cantenna technology will be operated easily through different operating systems such as Windows, Linux, Android, Mac, HP-UX, Corel Linux, and UNIX (Outmesguine, 2006). The decision to consider the different operating systems has arisen from the need to ensure that the target rural populations do not change the operating systems in order to enable their personal computer and Internet-enabled mobile devices such as smartphones to access the Wi-Fi network using the wind belt-cantenna technology.

Methodology

This research seeks to investigate how the Wi-Fi network can be implemented in rural areas using wind belt-cantenna technology. Subsequently, the study will be based on a deductive approach in order to test the outlined hypothesis. Through this approach, the research will develop a position on whether the wind belt-cantenna can improve the Wi-Fi network significantly in rural areas. Therefore, the research will establish the link between wind belt-cantenna technology and the Wi-Fi network.

The study will be based on a mixed research design. The design will entail using qualitative and quantitative research designs. The qualitative research design will aid in gathering sufficient data from the target stakeholders. Subsequently, it will be possible to gather diverse views from the stakeholders. The qualitative research design will enable the researcher to gather descriptive data. Yin (2013) asserts that the descriptive research approach enables a researcher to understand the factors associated with a specific outcome or occurrence. The research will also take into account the quantitative research design. This design will aid in improving the effectiveness and efficiency with which the qualitative data collected is analyzed and evaluated.

This research focuses on the rural population in Ohio County. However, conducting a study on the entire rural population is impractical. Therefore, to deal with this challenge, simple random sampling will be considered. The sampling technique will focus on the various categories of stakeholders considered in the study. This aspect will aid in developing a representative research sample. Creswell and Miller (1997) affirm that sampling makes a research study manageable. Moreover, simple random sampling will play an essential role in eliminating bias in selecting the respondents.

The data to be used in the study will be collected from primary sources in order to ensure a high degree of reliability. During the selection process, the research will consider the Internet users in rural areas. This aspect will ensure that the data collected is valid and relevant to the study (Creswell & Miller, 2000). Thus, interviews will be used as the core data-collection method. A set of open and close-ended questionnaires will be developed in order to guide the researcher in collecting the data. By using these questionnaires, the researcher will be in a position to collect sufficient data. The data collected will be analyzed using the Microsoft Excel application in order to present it using tables, graphs, and charts. Through this application, it will be possible to condense the data, hence improving the ease of interpretation amongst the target audience.

Conclusion and Recommendations

The emergence of ICT has presented governments and communities with numerous opportunities. However, the application of ICT in undertaking diverse services has not been exploited fully. One of the major challenges is that the ICT infrastructure has not been laid out throughout the country due to the prohibitive costs. However, it is imperative for alternatives to be considered in order to improve the utilization of ICT across the country. Implementing ICT in rural areas will play an essential role in promoting their products, hence their contribution to the country’s economic growth.

One of the technologies that should be considered is the wind belt-cantenna technology. The implementation of the technology will improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the Wi-Fi network by enhancing the reception of the Wi-Fi signal. Through this technology, the rural population will benefit from the high Internet signal, hence improving their productivity through the consumption of information. Furthermore, it is essential for institutions located in rural areas to utilize technology in their service delivery. For example, government entities can employ technology in offering e-government services, while schools can introduce the concept of e-learning. Conversely, health and social care institutions can use the technology in integrating emerging health care services such as telemedicine.

However, in a bid to implement the wind belt-cantenna technology successfully, it is essential to consider a high level of collaboration amongst the various stakeholders. The involvement and engagement will play a fundamental role in minimizing possible resistance from the target audience. Thus, the technology will gain a high degree of acceptance by the target audience. It is also essential for the local population to be taught on how to develop wind belt-cantenna technology using locally available resources.

References

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IvyPanda. (2020, July 10). The Implementation of WI-Fi Network in Rural Areas. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-implementation-of-wi-fi-network-in-rural-areas/

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"The Implementation of WI-Fi Network in Rural Areas." IvyPanda, 10 July 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/the-implementation-of-wi-fi-network-in-rural-areas/.

1. IvyPanda. "The Implementation of WI-Fi Network in Rural Areas." July 10, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-implementation-of-wi-fi-network-in-rural-areas/.


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IvyPanda. "The Implementation of WI-Fi Network in Rural Areas." July 10, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-implementation-of-wi-fi-network-in-rural-areas/.

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IvyPanda. 2020. "The Implementation of WI-Fi Network in Rural Areas." July 10, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-implementation-of-wi-fi-network-in-rural-areas/.

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IvyPanda. (2020) 'The Implementation of WI-Fi Network in Rural Areas'. 10 July.

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