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The Swahili of Uganda: Unreached People Project Research Paper


Abstract

The term ‘unreached group’ is used in missionary activities to refer to people with an evangelical population of less than 2%. The churches within such groups lack the necessary critical mass and resources required to evangelize their people. In some cases, there is no presence of the church at all. Many people may assume that the presence of unreached groups is a problem of the past owing to literacy in modern times. Such thoughts are misplaced since hundreds of groups still remain unreached. Common among them include Arabs, Tuaregs, Swahilis, and natives of India.

Islam forms the largest percentage of these groups. The Great Commission of Christianity is a biblical mandate to make Christian disciples in very nation. The mandate can be achieved owing to the large population of Christians in the world. Currently, there are 16,601 groups in the world. Majority of them are Christians. As such, the world can hence be said to have the critical mass required to evangelize to other unreached groups. All Christians must be willing to spread the gospel to these individuals as taught in the scriptures.

In this project, the author lays a foundation for missionary work in Uganda. The country has one of the highest numbers of Christians in Africa. However, a significant percentage of the population is unreached. For instance, there are very few Christians among the Swahili group.

The country is also known for strict traditional and orthodox practices. In this paper, the various factors that determine the success of missionary work in the area are analyzed. A review of past and present strategies employed in missionary activities is also conducted. It was revealed that traditional strategies of missionary work are unreliable and inefficient. As such, new approaches are needed.

Introduction

According to the Greeks, the word church means to call out or to gather the people of God as a sign of manifestation of His kingdom.1 Missionary work is the centre of the church’s vocation in the world.2 In Romans 10:14-15, St. Paul challenges Christians to embrace the noble course of missionary work. However, there are regions where Christians make up less than 2% of the total population.3 For instance, the Swahili group of Uganda is largely dominated by Muslims. Only a small percentage of the people practice Christianity.

In this paper, the author takes an in-depth look at the culture, history, language, and economic factors of the Swahili of Uganda with the aim of providing a basis for understanding the group in preparation for missionary work. An analysis of previous missionary works carried out among the group is also analyzed to provide insight into some of the challenges that may be encountered. Finally, the most appropriate strategy that can be used in reaching out to the group is proposed.

Analyzing the Swahili of Uganda

Due to the trading activities of this group, it is hard to pinpoint their exact homeland. However, their origin can be traced back to the inhabitants of East African coast in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zanzibar.4 All the Swahili people share a common language and history. They have been forced to move from one place to the other for a number of reasons.5 However, this does not mean that the Swahili community in this country does not have its own culture. Viewing this ethnic group as a homogenous entity is erroneous. They occupy different settlements and have embraced varying cultures. In this paper, the author focuses on the Swahili people living in Kasese district in Uganda.

History

In 1840, Seyyid Said took over the leadership of Zanzibar and made the country his main operating capital.6 He encouraged Indian financiers, Arabs, and locals who had intermarried to form the Swahili group to take embrace inland trading with the interior of Africa. The Swahilis were made the leaders of this ambitious endeavor aimed at opening up the continent. In the process, Arabs and Swahilis entered Buganda Kingdom from the south east. They did this in 1850.

The traders were welcomed by Kabaka and given land to settle in. They gave the Buganda a number of items. The items included beads and clothing. In exchange, they received slaves and ivory.7 Over time, some of the Swahili traders permanently settled in the country where they continued practicing Islam. They did not introduce their religion directly to the locals. However, most natives learnt and embraced the religion through observation.

In 1877, the arrival of church missionaries and the white fathers marked a new era that brought to an end the peaceful existence of Muslim Swahilis in Buganda.8 Shortly after the arrival of these missionaries, religious war broke out. In the first phase of the war, the Muslims defeated the Christians and run them out of the capital. However, the Christians regrouped and formed new allies. They were able to drive the Swahilis and Arab Muslims out of Buganda. Instead of regrouping and fighting again, the Muslims chose to migrate to other parts of Uganda. Part of the Swahili faction moved to Kasese. They settled here and taught Islam to other natives.

Religion

Like their forefathers in Buganda, the Swahili people in Kasese largely practice Islam as a way of life.9 Individuals from this community are associated with Islam.10 The group adheres to strict Islamic teachings. For instance, most of them participate in Hajj pilgrimage. In addition, traditional dresses are common. Such forms of clothing include, among others, the Jilbab. The Swahilis have adopted some elements of the local culture, making them part of their society.

Such elements include divination.11 In most cases, medicine men and traditional healers adhere to the Quran in their ministrations. Such practices are common among Muslims around the world. However, the Swahili of Uganda are unique. The reason is that women cannot practice traditional medicine or divination. Strict observance of holidays is also common. The most commonly celebrated events include Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Haji.

Economy

The Swahili of Uganda are largely traders. For a very long time, the group has engaged in commercial activities along the Indian Ocean routes.12 During this period, they traversed between Somalia and Zaire. They used to move merchandise from the interior to the East African coasts. Here, Portuguese and Arab merchants took over the goods and transported them to other parts of the world. In recent times, this form of trade has changed considerably. For instance, in the past, Swahili traders dealt with such items as slaves, ivory, beads, and cloth.

However, today, such trade is considered illegal. In spite of these changes, certain aspects of the Swahili trade still exist. For instance, the Swahili of Kasese play the role of middle men between Central Africa and East African coast. They are also well known in Uganda for their trade in high quality imported goods and merchandise.13 In recent times, their economic activities have diversified to include farm produce.

Most Swahili families in Kasese own plots of land where they carry out different farming activities. However, most of them still engage in trade, preferring to buy the goods they lack from neighboring communities. The Swahilis can be viewed as a relatively economically powerful group compared to other people in the country. They are comparatively well off and have higher standards of living than the general populace.14

Language

Kiswahili is the language widely spoken by the Swahili of Uganda.15 It is also commonly used by locals in neighboring countries, such as Kenya and Tanzania. However, there is a clear distinction in the usage of the language among the two groups. In the neighboring countries, the language is used as a second dialect. However, it is the native tongue among the Swahili people in Kasese.

It is a reflection of their unique history.16 The words used are heavily borrowed from Arabic and other languages. However, the grammar and syntax sets it apart from the other dialects. The two elements indicate that it belongs to the Bantus. As such, it is rooted in Africa. Like many other tribes in modern days, the Swahili of Kasese have been heavily influenced by English language. Majority of them can speak both Kiswahili and English. However, the latter is used as a second language.

Family Values

Family values among this group are based on Islamic teachings. Men are regarded as the head of families. They dictate how their wives and daughters behave in public. The aim is to maintain a good public image. However, this should not be mistaken for oppression of women. The female folk have significant influence over the running of the family unit.17

Some aspects of the family have greatly changed over time. In the early days, Swahilis of Uganda had large families of between ten to fourteen children per couple. However, recent studies show that most families have only two or three children. However, some aspects of this social institution have passed the test of time. For instance, extended families still live in one household.18

Culture

The Swahili of Uganda have a wide range of cultural practices. Different ceremonies are observed to mark such occasions as birth and death. Most of the cultural practices are heavily influenced by Islamic laws.19 For instance, youths get married at an early age as per the Islam teachings. Union between close relatives is also common. In most cases, parents prefer to have close relatives as the spouses of their children.20 Burial rites are also of great importance in this community. They begin from the time the person is ailing to their actual death.

When a person is dying, the last rites are performed according to Islam. A mwalimu reads the Quran near the death bed.21 However, in spite of the heavy influence of Islam, the Swahili people of Uganda have their own distinct and well established cultural practices, which are different from those of other Muslim communities in the world. A clear distinction can, for instance, be made in the rich usage of riddles and proverbs, which are developed according to the Ugandan surroundings. The riddles are commonly used in ceremonies and in teaching of the Quran.22

Geographical Location

Uganda is a landlocked country. It is located in the east African region. It borders Kenya, Congo, South Sudan, and Tanzania.23 According to the latest census statistics, the country has a population of thirty three million people. Though the country has experienced moments of instability in the past, peace and tranquility is slowly returning to the region with the establishment of a stable government.24 Kasese district is in western Uganda. It covers an area of 2,742 km2 and has an estimated population of 747,800 people. 90 percent of this population practice Islam. The religion is widely practiced by the Swahili group living in the area.

The map below illustrates the region occupied by this group in Uganda:

A map of Uganda25
Figure 1: A map of Uganda25

A Survey of Past Missionary Works among the Swahili of Uganda

Most missionary activities in Africa have been largely successful.26 The success of these activities is often measured on the basis of the number of people converted to the Christian faith at the end of the mission. In some occasions, missionary work can achieve mixed results. A classic example is the mission to Buganda in the early 1830s. The missionary workers achieved a positive goal in that they were able to convert the original natives of the Buganda kingdom to Christianity.

However, in doing this, they had to chase away the existing Muslim population that was teaching Islam in the region. In modern times, things have greatly changed since religious wars no longer settle disputes among competing faiths.27 In other cases, missionary work achieves completely negative results. It can be in the form of failure to reach the intended population or the premature termination of the mission due to various factors.

In this section, the author looks into the past and present missionary activities in Kasese with the aim of establishing the different aspects and lessons that can be learnt from these missions. The analysis will enhance the success of future missions in the area. To assess past missionary activities in Kasese, it is important to look into the first encounter between the missionaries and the Swahili of Uganda in Buganda Kingdom. The contact forced the group out of the region and into Kasese. Lastly, the author will look into the missionaries’ present encounter in Kasese.

The First Encounter between the Swahili of Uganda and Christian Missionaries in Buganda

The first contact between the Swahili of Uganda and the Christian missionaries can be seen as one of greatest antagonisms and source of contention in missionary history.28 The Swahili were part of a greater faction of Muslims who had settled in Uganda and begun teaching their religion to the natives. As such, there was battle for control of the natives.

Individuals from the Church Missionaries’ Society (CMS) first arrived in Buganda in 1877. They arrived late when Islam had already begun taking hold in the country. However, their arrival can be said to have been strategic. It is mainly because at the time, Islam had awakened various needs and aspirations among the Buganda. The desires could only be satisfied by Christianity. For instance, Islam had created an urge for literacy among the natives. Missionary exploited this need using their advanced printing presses.

Christianity further emphasized on concepts that had already been taught by the Muslims to convert people.29 Such concepts included the existence of scriptures and a supreme God.30 Consequently, the Christians found it easier to convert people to the new faith than Muslims. Soon, the missionaries had corrupted and polluted the minds and beliefs of many natives, turning them against Islam. Kabaka was among the victims. As illustrated earlier, this was the beginning of religious conflicts from which Christians emerged the winners. Muslims were pushed out of the country.

Second Encounter between the Swahili of Uganda and the Christian Missionaries in Kasese

The second encounter describes any missionary work carried out among the Swahili of Uganda living in Kasese after their mass migration out of Buganda following the defeat from the Christians. It is important to note that in this second contact, the aim of the missionaries was to spread the gospel to the Swahili faction. Missionary work in this region has been largely organized, unlike in Buganda where there was jostling for territories and souls between the Catholics and the Anglicans. In Kasese, the work has largely been carried out by the Anglican Church.

In this section, the author analyzes the approach taken by missionaries from the Baptist Union of Uganda in spreading the gospel among the Swahili. The missionary group began working with the Swahilis in the early twentieth century.31 Their mode of operation was similar to that used by other groups before. They begun by aligning themselves with the chief for land and good will. They then began to spread literacy among the people in the region by recruiting children to attend reading classes.32

Their major difficulty in this attempt was that Islamic culture and rules among the Swahili did not allow for girls to attend and engage in such lessons. As such, they had to make do with teaching boys only. The main reason for doing this is that the new missionaries realized that it was not enough to instruct faith alone.33 Literacy among the Swahilis would mean that ‘lay’ leaders and catechists would be sourced from the locals. The move would be crucial in spreading evangelism to the larger population.

The schools also provided a good avenue for dissemination of western culture and Christian values among the children. Social misfits in the Swahili community were easily identified and converted by the Baptist missionaries.34 It is mainly because they had lost their social status in the community. The individuals were able to easily regain their dignity by earning a new status in Christ.

The ‘Kusoma Syndrome’ helped the missionaries to spearhead a silent revolution. In this case, all the boys were expected to denounce their traditional faith and embrace Christianity. It is noted that the current strategies used by this missionary group were largely effective. However, they made little progress among the larger Swahili population.

Current Status of the Church

Uganda is generally a Christian nation. Christians account for 85% of the population.35 It is noted that 44.5 percent of these Christians are Catholics. Anglicans make up 39.2 percent.36 As a country, Uganda has very few unreached groups of people compared to other parts of the world. Only 9% of the total population has no knowledge of Christ. Majority of the unreached groups practice Islam and Hinduism. The Swahili of Uganda form the majority of the unreached group practicing Islam.

In Kasese, Christianity and Islam are the most widely professed religions. On most Sundays, churches are packed with worshippers and Christian stations dominate the airwaves. The national census conducted in 2002 clearly showed the dominance of the Christian faction over Islam.37 In this paper, the author focuses more on the Baptist Church in Kasese. It is mainly because the church has conducted numerous successful missionary activities in the region and is better informed of the cultural practices and beliefs of the Swahili people.

Some members of the church are also part of the Swahili group. They have defected from the Islamic religion. The church is also well equipped and suited for carrying out missionary work. First, it has a network of over five outreach stations in Kasese. All of them are in close proximity to the Swahilis. The church also has a large population of Christians who can be effectively used in carrying out missionary activities among the Muslims. In addition, it owns many facilities, such as schools, colleges, lodging areas, and radio stations. The installations can be utilized to carry out missionary work.38

The church can be contacted through Rev. Andreya Lubono. He is one of the core founders of the institution after fleeing from his home in Zaire following unrests in the country. The Reverend clearly understands missionary work since he has conducted a wide range of outreach activities in Uganda in an indirect way.

For instance, after forming the first church, he evangelized by moving from village to village calling people using trumpets. He also gathered people at different homes where he read the Bible and preached to them in Kiswahili and Lhukonzo. As such, he has a deeply rooted understanding of the strategies that can be used in carrying out missionary work among the Swahili of Uganda.

Difficulties in the Region

In both cases of contact between the Swahili and the missionaries, certain factors led to the slow spread of religion. One of these issues that impacted negatively on the strategies used by the missionaries is the fact that a large portion of the Swahili population was already literate.39 Unlike other African natives, the individuals already spoke their language, wrote their own literature, and taught in madrasas. In addition, they had their own currency of trade and followed a well thought out and modern religion.40 As such, they were not easily enticed by the thought of learning a new religion or gaining additional knowledge.

The Swahilis were also extremely ruthless in spreading their own religion. As such, it was difficult to spread a new faith among them. A case in point is the first encounter in the kingdom of Buganda. The Muslims had convinced the king to make Islam the religion of the state. Any form of defiance to the religion was ruthlessly dealt with.

In one occasion, a host of messengers were sent out to all counties to arrest pagans who did not practice the new faith. Over two thousand natives were arrested and killed through burning, spearing, drowning, and torture.41 Such practices made the people take up the Islamic faith. Though much of these practices have changed in recent times, new Islamic converts are still hesitant of denouncing their faith for fear of unknown repercussions.

Another key factor that has deterred missionary work among the Swahili of Uganda is pride and history. Children among the Swahili grow up listening to stories of how their forefathers were run out of their original home by the Christian faction. As such, they grow up with the view that Christianity is a hostile religion. The hatred against Christians as a result of the defeat is still evident today.42 It is for these reasons that there is need for a change in strategy in conducting new missionary work among these people.

Missionary Work among Modern Day Swahili People in Kasese, Uganda: Proposed Strategy

Strategies Used in Missionary Work

Missionaries are generally expected to be strategic and tactical in nature.43 It is the only way that they can enhance the success of their interventions among native communities. It is important to note that strategies and tactics are closely related. However, the two are not the same. In most cases, strategy takes priority over tactics. To this end, it determines the tactics to be employed to effectively achieve a set out goal. In light of this, it is of great importance to lay down an elaborate strategy before embarking on any missionary work around the world.

There are different strategies that can be employed by missionaries when conducting evangelical works. The best known approaches among modern and traditional missionaries are the cross-cultural and indigenous missions.44 The first category of strategic approaches has been widely used in the past. It is commonly used in spreading the gospel, especially in such African countries as Uganda.

It involves sending out missionaries to the target nation or to a group of people outside their community. The approach has strong Biblical roots. For example, it was widely used by Apostle Paul. The saint is regarded by many Christians as the first apostle to initiate the establishment of churches long before the glorious history of modern day missionaries. He largely depended on cross-cultural missions.45 He came from the Jewish community.

However, he reached out to people of other communities. In addition, he travelled outside Israel, his home country. He made efforts to reach out to the Gentiles. He used various arguments to justify his approach to missionary work. For example, he argued that it was the only way that a group of people without a preacher can know about the gospel of God. They can only be helped by the intervention of missionaries from other cultures.46 The missionaries should reach out to these people in their natural settings.

Why Cross-Cultural Approach should not be used on the Swahili of Uganda

It is a fact that cross-cultural missionary strategy has been largely effective. However, it is not recommended among the Swahili people of Uganda. There are various reasons why modern missionaries should seek out alternative strategies of reaching out to this group. Most of these reasons are tied to the various weaknesses associated with this approach. One of them is the fact that the strategy works best in situations where there is no church that has established itself in the community. In addition, the strategy is often expensive. The reason is that the missionaries have to fund the building and establishment of churches in the target community.

In addition, they have to support infrastructural development in the new community. Such expenses can be avoided if there is an already existing and well established church in the target area. Cross-cultural strategy is also likely to fail among the Swahili of Uganda due to the hostility this group of individuals has towards Christians. As already indicated in this paper, the hostility and hatred is deeply rooted in the history of this group. It is for this reason that the author of this paper proposes the use of the strategy of indigenous missions among this group of people.

Indigenous Mission: The Recommended Missionary Strategy among the Swahili of Uganda

The conventional approach to missionary work has various limitations. It involved training and supporting missionaries from European and western countries to carry out evangelical works in target communities. The approach has been overtaken by events. Today, it is not sufficient in reaching out to the whole world, especially in hostile environments and cultures.47 That is why there is need to come up with a new way of thinking and approaching missionary work. The modern strategy should be used in the case of the Swahili group in Kasese, Uganda.

Indigenous strategy is unique and effective. The reason is that it works by relying on missionaries that are native to the country in which they are ministering. The approach acknowledges the importance of locally bred believers and churches. In light of this, it seeks to empower them to reach out to people from their community. In the case of the Swahili of Uganda, the Baptist Church would be the best establishment to use in the implementation of this strategy.

It is mainly because ministers and apostles in this church live in the same geographical location as the Swahili people, who are targeted in this missionary endeavor. As such, the local evangelists have a better understanding of their culture compared to outsiders. Culture is an important element when it comes to the spread of gospel among new groups. The reason is that the new faith should not be in conflict with the native traditions.

Members of the Ugandan Baptist Church are also extremely conversant with the Kiswahili language spoken by this group. As such, they can easily communicate with members of this community. On the contrary, foreign missionaries would take a lot of time in learning the local language. As a result, valuable time will be wasted. In addition, it is noted that using the local church will be more economical in the long run compared to the use of foreign interventions.

The economical advantages are realized in terms of the sustenance of field missionaries. It has been proven that local missionaries live more economically in their own countries compared to their foreign counterparts. In fact, studies have shown that the expense is one-tenth of what it would cost to bring a missionary from a foreign country and sustain them in the field.48 As such, any outreach missions among the Swahili of Uganda should be carried out by native missionaries.

It is also noted that the local church is flexible. It can change its shape, structure, and organization. The aim of such flexibility is to accommodate changes in the society. It can make adjustments effectively and faster than a foreign mission. In case of foreign missionaries, changes have to be communicated to the mother church abroad, leading to waste of valuable time. Local churches are also well placed to provide the natives with crucial social amenities, such as drinking water.

Other services include training in agriculture. The facilities are missing among the Swahili communities in Kasese. The church’s access to social workers is also an important aspect that informs the support for an indigenous mission strategy. Christian social workers are of great importance to missionary work since they can easily imbed themselves onto local organizations, such as orphanages, remand homes, and detention centers among the Swahili community. Such establishments hold people that desperately need help and hope.49

The proposed strategy heavily relies on the Baptist Church in Uganda. However, it is worth noting that there are other churches that share the same outreach mindset and urge to spread the gospel. For example, 20% of Christians in Uganda have already shown interest to carry out missionary work. In addition, 5% of the churches are already involved in missionary activities.50

The churches can be financed to effectively carry out these outreach roles among the Swahili population. Financial backing should also be made to help the local churches to establish small Christian communities in strategic locations that would mainly serve the Swahili people. Sowing of small churches should involve building structures and ensuring that the basic needs of these people are met. In addition, it should entail building of relationships with the local Swahili people and earning genuine trust to share Christ through Christian living.

Conclusion

It is clear that carrying out successful missionary work is a complex process. A critical analysis of the Swahili group of Uganda shows that missionary interventions among this group are possible. However, such a mission would require complex planning and sensitivity when dealing with the local community. The reason is the long history shared by the two groups.

Application of the proposed strategy can level the ground since the missionaries would be able to carry out evangelism work without actually coming into contact with the community. In addition, it is quite clear that the use of locally established churches and organizations can go a long way in saving time and resources. The core element of the missionary program outlined in this paper revolves around the local community.

Bibliography

Bengt, Sundkler, and Christopher Steed. A History of the Church in Africa. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Gingyera, Pinycwa. “The Social and Political Thought of an African People: The Alur and Jonam of Northwestern Uganda.” Uganda Journal 46, no. 1 (2000): 56-60.

Goren, Henri. “The Law of the Harvest: Practical Principles of Effective Missionary Work.” Exchange 38, no. 3 (2009): 322-323.

Hansen, Holger, and Michael Twaddle. Christian Missionaries & the State in the Third World. Oxford: Ohio University Press, 2002.

Howell, Caroline. “A Cupboard of Surprises: Working in the Archives of the Church of Uganda.” History in Africa 28, no. 3 (2001): 411.

Joshua Project. 2015. Web.

Kim, Caleb. Islam among the Swahili in East Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: Acton Publishers, 2004.

Landau, Paul. “Christian Missionaries and Politics in British Africa and Beyond.” Journal of African History 44, no. 3 (2003): 532-533.

Mandryk, Jason. Operational World. 7th edition. Colorado Springs: Biblica, 2010.

Maw, Joan, and David Parkin. “Swahili Language and Society: Papers from the Workshop Held at the School of Oriental and African Studies.” Beiträge zur Afrikanistik 23, no. 33 (April 1984): 36.

Mawejje, Godfrey. The Anglican-Roman Catholic Conflict in Buganda during the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. Winnipeg: University of Winnipeg, 2008.

Moreau, Scott, Gary Corwin, and Gary McGee. Introducing World Missions: A Biblical, Historical, and Practical Survey. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 2004.

Myers, Garth. “Living Translocality: Space, Culture and Economy in Contemporary Swahili Trade.” Social & Cultural Geography 15, no. 5 (2013): 585-587.

Porter, Andrew. “A Change of Mind the Ideal of the Self-Governing Church: A Study in Victorian Missionary Strategy.” Dutch Guilders 33, no. 2 (1992): 148-300.

Reimer, Michael. “Converting the Missionaries.” Diplomatic History 35, no. 1 (2010): 47-50.

Robinson, David. Muslim Societies in African History. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Tourigny, Yves. Ancestors in the Faith. Kampala, Uganda: Missionaries of Africa, 2009.

Winter, Ralph, and Steven Hawthorne. Perspectives on the World Christian Movement: A Reader. 4th edition. Pasadena, California: William Carey Library, 2009.

Footnotes

  1. Pinycwa Gingyera, “The Social and Political Thought of an African People: The lur and Jonam of Northwestern Uganda,” Uganda Journal 46, no. 1 (2000): 58.
  2. Henri Goren, “The Law of the Harvest: Practical Principles of Effective Missionary Work,” Exchange 38, no. 3 (2009): 322.
  3. Scott Moreau, Gary Corwin and Gary McGee, Introducing World Missions: A Biblical, Historical, and Practical Survey (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 2004), 65.
  4. Caleb Kim, Islam among the Swahili in East Africa (Nairobi, Kenya: Acton Publishers, 2004), 99.
  5. Kim, Islam among the Swahili in East Africa, 45.
  6. Garth Myers, “Living Translocality: Space, Culture and Economy in Contemporary Swahili Trade,” Social & Cultural Geography 15, no. 5 (2013): 586.
  7. Myers, “Living Translocality,” 587.
  8. Yves Tourigny, Ancestors in the Faith (Kampala, Uganda: Missionaries of Africa, 2009), 23.
  9. Kim, Islam among the Swahili in East Africa, 54.
  10. Kim, Islam among the Swahili in East Africa, 82.
  11. Kim, Islam among the Swahili in East Africa, 45.
  12. Joan Maw and David Parkin, “Swahili Language and Society: Papers from the Workshop Held at the School of Oriental and African Studies,” Beiträge zur Afrikanistik 23, no. 33 (April 1984): 36.
  13. Maw and Parkin, “Swahili Language and Society,” 36.
  14. Myers, “Living Translocality,” 587.
  15. Myers, “Living Translocality,” 587.
  16. Kim, Islam among the Swahili in East Africa, 81.
  17. Myers, “Living Translocality,” 586.
  18. Myers, “Living Translocality,” 587.
  19. Kim, Islam among the Swahili in East Africa, 34.
  20. Kim, Islam among the Swahili in East Africa, 87.
  21. Mwalimu refers to a religious leader.
  22. Kim, Islam among the Swahili in East Africa, 34.
  23. Joshua Project, “Swahili,” 2015, Web.
  24. Joshua Project, “Swahili.”
  25. Kim, Islam among the Swahili in East Africa, 82.
  26. Holger Hansen and Michael Twaddle, Christian Missionaries & the State in the Third World (Oxford: Ohio University Press, 2002), 73.
  27. Hansen and Twaddle, Christian Missionaries, 22.
  28. Godfrey Mawejje, The Anglican-Roman Catholic Conflict in Buganda during the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (Winnipeg: University of Winnipeg, 2008), 45.
  29. Mawejje, The Anglican-Roman Catholic Conflict in Buganda, 34.
  30. Mawejje, The Anglican-Roman Catholic Conflict In Buganda, 72.
  31. Paul Landau, “Christian Missionaries and Politics in British Africa and Beyond,” Journal of African History 44, no. 3 (2003): 533.
  32. Caroline Howell, “A Cupboard of Surprises: Working in the Archives of the Church of Uganda,” History in Africa 28, no. 3 (2001): 411.
  33. Howell, “A Cupboard of Surprises,” 411.
  34. Howell, “A Cupboard of Surprises,” 411.
  35. Joshua Project, “Swahili.”
  36. Joshua Project, “Swahili.”
  37. Joshua Project, “Swahili.”
  38. Andrew Porter, “A Change of Mind the Ideal of the Self-Governing Church: A Study in Victorian Missionary Strategy,” Dutch Guilders 33, no. 2 (1992): 149.
  39. Mawejje, The Anglican-Roman Catholic Conflict in Buganda, 88.
  40. Madrasa are classes used to teach religion to young children in Islam.
  41. Mawejje, The Anglican-Roman Catholic Conflict in Buganda, 41.
  42. Landau, “Christian Missionaries and Politics,” 533.
  43. Ralph Winter and Steven Hawthorne, Perspectives on the World Christian Movement: A Reader. 4th edition (Pasadena, California: William Carey Library, 2009), 34.
  44. David Robinson, Muslim Societies in African History (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 56.
  45. Winter and Hawthorne, Perspectives on the World Christian Movement, 77.
  46. Porter, “A Change of Mind the Ideal of the Self-Governing Church,” 330.
  47. Goren, “The Law of the Harvest,” 323.
  48. Goren, “The Law of the Harvest,” 322.
  49. Sundkler Bengt and Christopher Steed, A History of the Church in Africa (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 55.
  50. Michael Reimer, “Converting the Missionaries,” Diplomatic History 35, no. 1 (2010): 49.
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Work Cited

"The Swahili of Uganda: Unreached People Project." IvyPanda, 1 July 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/the-swahili-of-uganda-unreached-people-project/.

1. IvyPanda. "The Swahili of Uganda: Unreached People Project." July 1, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-swahili-of-uganda-unreached-people-project/.


Bibliography


IvyPanda. "The Swahili of Uganda: Unreached People Project." July 1, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-swahili-of-uganda-unreached-people-project/.

References

IvyPanda. 2020. "The Swahili of Uganda: Unreached People Project." July 1, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-swahili-of-uganda-unreached-people-project/.

References

IvyPanda. (2020) 'The Swahili of Uganda: Unreached People Project'. 1 July.

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