The United States Army Corps of Engineers, denoted as USACE, is a federal organization is charged with the responsibility of public works and construction. The agency is situated within the Department of Defense meaning that is under direct supervision of the executive. The organization was originally set up to assist in the construction of canals and saving lives during catastrophic events such as floods.
Its main aim is to offer important public engineering in both the times of peace and war. This is aimed at strengthening the country’s defense, revitalizing the financial system and reducing the risks of natural disasters.
The agency is supposed to perform four major duties including setting up and designing tresses and dams. Moreover, it is depended upon to construct flood prevention systems. The third function is to put up and manage military facilities to serve the army, the air force and the navy. Finally, it is mandated to preserve the environment.
The agency receives funds from the government but after approval by the concerned subcommittee. The US Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Energy and Water usually approves the funds for the agency, which is one of the twelve subcommittees in the American senate.
The Subcommittee on Defense controls the sanctioning of other defense activities but the Army Corps is under a different Subcommittee, even though it is under the department of defense. Apart from overseeing the funding of the Army Corps of Engineers, the Subcommittee on Energy oversees the operations of other agencies such as nuclear waste disposal and nuclear regulatory agencies.
In the current senate, the California senate referred to as Dianne Feinstein, chairs the Subcommittee while the minority member is the Tennessee senator, who is ranked as the highest member among the minority members (Mikesell, 2010). Regarding functional classifications, the Army Corps of Engineers falls under the national defense category, coded 050.
U.S. Bureau of Land Management
The agency in charge of land management is based in the US department of the interior, which is the ministry in charge of handling issues related land. The agency is also supposed to oversee the management of minerals lying beneath the earth surface. Even though the agency is projected to oversee the management of public land, it is also involved in resolving issues related to private land ownership and state land.
The main objective of the agency is to sustain health, diversity and productivity of the public land. This means that the use of public land should observe the policy of sustainable development whereby the present generation should preserve resources for the future generation. The agency falls within the executive arm of government owing to its sensitivity.
However, the agency is partly independent because it was formed through the act of parliament. The executive can only interfere in matters undertaken by the agency in case state security is under threat (Skillen, 2009). For instance, the executive intervenes in case the issue thorny issue threatens to cause public disharmony.
The subcommittee on interior and the environment manages the management of the affairs of the agency in terms of budgetary allocations. Simpson Mike of Idaho currently chairs the subcommittee. Under the functional category, the agency falls under the natural resources and environment unit.
It is usually referred to as functional unit number 300, which is supposed to protect the environment and preserve the public land. The agency works closely with other agencies such as the Army Corps of Engineers to ensure that the environment is clean and the public land is used in accordance with the law.
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation
The Bureau of Reclamation is a governmental body dedicated to the management of water resources in the country. The department of the Interior controls the agency meaning that it is partly autonomous. However, the executive will always intervene in its activities just in case matters of national security are at stake. Water is an essential commodity in any country and the government of the day will never allow private entities to control its supply.
Therefore, the executive ensures that the agency serves the citizens appropriately. The agency is the only governmental organization licensed to distribute water to the American citizens. The agency collaborates with other governmental bodies to ensure that clean water is availed to citizens at an affordable price.
In some parts of the country, such as the western US, the agency is relied upon in generating hydroelectric power. The Appropriations Subcommittee on Energy and Water is charged with the responsibility of commissioning the agency’s funds. For instance, in the 2013 funding legislation, the subcommittee allocated approximately $33.361 to the department.
The agency falls in the same functional category as the agency in charge of land management. This means that it is categorized under natural resources and environment. The agency gained relevance during and after the Second World War given that everybody needed its services.
Currently, it is undertaking over 180 projects in some parts of the country, particularly the seventeen states in the west. Through the efforts of the agency, the agricultural production and the living standards of the poor have been improved. The agency was able to complete projects worth $11.0 billion in early 1990s.
U.S. Coast Guard
The coast guard is an extension of the armed forces implying that it falls directly under the department of defense. The agency operates under the department of homeland security because it is charged with the duty of overseeing both the American and international waters. The executive controls the agency at all times since its role is to offer protection to the American interests at the coast domestically and internationally.
For instance, the head of state has the power to transfer the operations of the agency to the navy. The agency is a bit different from other armed forces agencies because it either can operate under the military or can act in accordance to the advice of the president. The main duties of the agency are to provide maritime security, safety and stewardship. The appropriations subcommittee charged with the role of sanctioning funds for the agency is the Homeland Security Subcommittee.
The functional category under which the agency is grouped is the national defense (050) (Patashnik, 1999). It is in the same category as other military agencies and security agencies such as the FBI. The agency monitors all activities taking place in the sea, including trade. For instance, the agency must inspect all cargo before entering and leaving the country. The American constitution allows the agency to enforce the federal law meaning that it has a wide jurisdiction.
U.S. Bureau of Land Management Budget for the year 2012
The agency in charge of land management is under the department of interior, as earlier noted in the previous sections of this article. In the financial year 2011/2012, the department was allocated some funds to conduct its activities as regards to land management. As compared to the budget before, the 2011/2012 budget fell by a considerable margin.
The funds allocated to soil, water and air management were less by $ 16,686 because the activity was allocated $ 46,303, down from $ 62,989 the previous year. However, the activity had been allocated $ 46,303 by the agency. This means that the estimated figures were approved without any adjustments. Range management activity was allotted $71603. The agency had also approximated the same amount. Nevertheless, the figure was less by $5,312.
Forestry management received $9,730, down from $9,945 the previous year. However, the subcommittee approved the estimates without any changes. The funds assigned to Riparian management were approximated at $23,805 and the subcommittee approved it without any adjustment. The funds for the fiscal year 2011/2012 were above those allocated to the activity the previous year. It exceeded those allocated to the previous year by $247. This showed the government’s commitment to improve the activity in the country.
It was a blow to the agency concerning cultural resources management because the subcommittee failed to approve its estimate of $25,614. The subcommittee downsized the figure to $16,131. Moreover, the figure was down from $16,816 the previous year meaning that it had a deficit of -685.
The world horse and Bruno management received $75,008, which was also the approximated amount. Nevertheless, the figure could not be compared to that of the previous year, which was $75,753. In total, the agency received $241,310 as compared to the previous year’s $265,223. The agency had however approximated a funding of $251,310 (Kirst, 1990).
Kirst, M. (1990). Accountability: Implications for state and local policy perspectives. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
Mikesell, J.L. (2010). Public Budgeting and Finance: Fiscal Administration: Analysis and Applications for the Public Sector (8th ed). Mason, OH: Cenage Learning
Patashnik, E. (1999). Ideas, Inheritances, and the Dynamics of Budgetary Change. Governance, 12(2), 147-174.
Skillen, J. (2009). The Nation’s Largest Landlord: The Bureau of Land Management in the American West. Kansas: University Press of Kansas.