The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the provinces of the British North America, especially the Upper Canada (Ontario), Lower Canada (Quebec), New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island and Bermuda. It took place between 1812 and 1815 and was staged mainly at the Atlantic Ocean and the waters along the Northern Americas.
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There are many immediate causes that led United States to declare the war. It all began in 1807 when Britain came up with trade restrictions to hinder the United States from trading with France, which was a strong rival of the Britain. The United States argued that according to the International laws of trade it was wrong to impose the restrictions.
Apart from that, the British military had assisted the American Indians to attack American settlers in the Northwest further worsening their failing relations. The Indians attacks prevented the U.S. from expanding towards the Northwest Territories, which is currently occupied by states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan. The British argued that the aim of the U.S. was to annex some parts of Canada (Pearson, 254).
Another cause of the War of 1812 was the fruitless attempt of the United States to exploit its irredentist and imperialistic interests and uphold its honors as they considered the Britain challenge to be insult. This war led to massive loss of lives and property but neither of the irredentists lost their territories.
The war ended with signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which created the “status quo ante bellum” assuring the rivals to retain their territories. Unites States and the British North America later came up with the Treaty of 1818, which adjusted borders. The British North America considered the War of 1812 as a success as they defended their territory and it instilled confidence and the militia myth, which led to nationalism among the Canadians.
The Battle of York was staged on 27th April 1813, at York, which is nowadays known as Toronto. During the War of 1812, an American unit backed by a navy flotilla docked on the Lake Ontario shore near the West, fought the defensive British unit and captured the city and its dock.
The victory of the mission was blemished by acts of plunder and stealing done out by the American units on the British supply chain, which later justified the Burning of Washington by the British units.
The Battle of Stoney Creek was staged in 6th June 1813 at the time of the War of 1812 in what is nowadays known as Stoney Creek, Ontario. The Americans had victoriously fought the Battle of Fort George, which made the British armies to attack the American camps during the night. The British emerged victors in the war due to the capture of two senior officials of the American unit and the overconfidence of the Americans over the British (Pearson, 310).
The Battle of Beaver Dams was fought on 24th June 1813, at the time of the Anglo American War of 1812. The battle broke out after Laura Secord delivered a warning of an American effort to attack a British colony at Beaver Dams, Fort George. The Americans were ousted by Native warriors and later surrendered to the commander of the small British deployment.
Major-General Sir Isaac Brook was a British Army official, in charge of Upper Canada since 1802 defending the Upper Canada from the Americans.
Whereas many people in Canada and Britain thought that war could be avoided, Brock was preparing his regiment for a battle that was foreseeable and when the War of 1813 broke out, Brock and his army were ready and easily defeated the Americans in Fort Mackinac and in Detroit. Brock was killed at the Battle of Queenston Heights, which British won.
Tecumseh was a Native American leader of the Shawnee and a great tribal confederacy, which fought against the Americans at the Tecumseh War and at the War of 1812. At the time of the War of 1812, Tecumseh and the tribal confederacy united with the British troops in Canada and assisted in the capturing Fort Detroit.
The American unit under the leadership of Harrison, an American commander, initiated a counterattack on Canada, which led to the Battle of the Thames where Tecumseh died (Pearson 344).
Pearson, Greg. Canadian history: a sense of time. Vancouver, BC: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2006. Print.