Many historians agree that the American Revolution was a culmination of a greater imperial conflict between natives and colonial masters who had occupied different colonies. However, the events of 1763 are accredited for being the turning point that accelerated the wheel towards the revolution. During this time, many colonists changed their opinion on the Great Britain. The three key events of this particular year that are very important to the American history include the French-Indian war, taxes, and frontier policies of the time.
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With reference to Anderson’s views, during this time, the French and Indian War (1754-1763) between the Great Britain and France ended with the Treaty of Paris1. The war had been fueled by disputes between France and the Great Britain based on their territories whose borders had not been well defined. Importantly, the dispute between the two countries concerning the possession of the upper Ohio River Valley was a major reason for the war.
Although Britain lost to France in the early years of the war, after 1757, the reorganization of its army saw the tide turn around. France and its allied countries such as India lost in subsequent battles2.
During the war, France had sought the help of Spain in what was referred to as the Family Compact of 1761, which was intended to push the Great Britain into accepting defeat or a ceasefire for war, which was proving very costly to France. However, poor disorganization of the Spanish Army meant that Britain won against the combined allies3. In 1763, a ceasefire was reached after both sides signed the Treaty of Paris. The Treaty of Paris awarded enormous territorial gains to the Great Britain.
The gains by the Great Britain were not without cost. The cost of the war and the expenses of managing the new territories were staggering. They almost crippled the economy of the country. To stop the country from going into debt, the Great Britain imposed new frontier policies and taxes that required natives to pay the expenses of the war and to return the East Indian Company into profitability4.
However, there was serious discontent on these policies and taxes, which contributed to increasing hostility by the natives towards Britain. These disputes ultimately led to a full-blown war that was waged by the American Natives with an aim of securing freedom and independence.
In the count down to the American Revolution war, the thirteen colonies under the Great Britain rule rejected the authority of the colonial masters to tax them. Further, there were major protests, which were a clear expression of the natives’ discontent of their colonizers. One of the most notable protests was the Boston Tea Party of 17735. However, with Britain responding with punitive laws that were referred to as the ‘Intolerable Acts’ in 1774, the conflict had span out of control.
Despite the efforts by Britain to take control by whatever means, the natives had strength of mind in their push for independence. In 1776, the continental congress, which was made of delegates from all the thirteen colonies, declared the colonies free and independent states. In the following year, the thirteen states became the United States of America. From the above events, it is evident that the events of 1763 were important since they led to a progression of events that ultimately led to the formation of the USA.
Anderson, Fred. The war that made America: a short history of the French and Indian War. New York, NY: Viking, 2005.
1 Fred Anderson , The war that made America: a short history of the French and Indian War (New York: Viking, 2005) , 21.
2 Ibid, 22
3 Ibid, 26
4 Ibid, 28
5 Ibid, 29