Home > Free Essays > Transportation > Water Transport > Transportation Congestion and Seaport Security
Cite this

Transportation Congestion and Seaport Security Research Paper


Abstract

This research paper provides an insight into the convergence of transportation congestion and security at a United States seaport. Most of the streets in various states of the US experience transportation congestion due to increased use of road and rail networks among others. However, the analysis of seaport congestion demands comprehension of its effects of on the national economy.

A purposeful perspective should be applied in vehicle and ship demeanors in the modal networks. It should figure out how these modes of transport compete for the limited spaces on the networks. On the other hand, the user’s viewpoint is a reflection of the expected functionality of the transport system. To manage transport congestion effectively, a combination of behaviors of the physical traffic and users’ expectations of the operational ability of the system are merged.

Transportation congestion has caused problems such as prevention of free movement of people, goods, and vehicles. This situation has further resulted in disruption of daily business performances and increased insecurity among others. Cases such as theft and terrorism have heightened because of nature of traffic at the US seaports.

As a result, there has been increased fear of being mugged or losing large amounts of dollars at the facilities. The U.S. has strived to manage all aspects transport congestion and security at the seaports by addressing the problems and measures that minimize costs. This research paper elaborates on the extent of convergence of transport congestion and security at a U.S. seaport. It also provides the significances of such convergence to the state.

Transport Congestion

Transport congestion arises from a higher need of mobility equipment that surpasses the capacity of the available motorways. This situation leads to traffic jams that slow down business activities. Traffic congestion at the seaport varies depending on rush hours and seasons among other factors, which either accelerate or decelerate the flow of automobiles into and out of the port facility.

There has been notable amplification of traffic volumes that have congested highways and roads within the United States seaports, especially in Los Angeles. This situation has resulted in hands-on difficulties at the facilities that have made delivery of people and goods by the various operators a nightmare due to amplified time wastage.

The United States population is on the rise. This situation corresponds to an increasing number of people who transact their businesses in towns. Although the government has attempted to implement numerous solutions such as establishment of more highways to decongest the port, the slow processes do not match the pace of increasing traffic at the facilities.

The Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) recently revealed that thousands of hours and approximately 3 billion additional gallons of fuel are wasted due to traffic jams in the US seaports (Figliozzi, 2010). The TTI approximations show that freight distribution will be higher in the next 5 years because of transport congestion.

Presently, businesses that deal with distribution of merchandize by means of transits and trucks get low profits due to increased automobile traffic. Numerous researchers have also documented findings concerning higher expenses during distribution and delivery of various products that pass through the port facilities (Figliozzi, 2010). Usually, crammed seaports lead to time wastages due to a higher frequency of traffic jams as vehicles are driven at exceedingly slower space.

This situation has always led to high capacity ratio motorways, especially during the rush hours. Other causes of transport congestion include collisions and other emergencies such as fire breakouts, medical cases, and vehicle breakdowns among others. However, cramming of the seaports is mainly experienced at peak hours while the other causes only happen indeterminately (Goetz & Vowles, 2003).

Transport congestion has raised a major concern that has compelled numerous researchers to conduct studies to investigate variability problems that are brought about by congestion delays, and freight distribution systems.

According to Figliozzi (2010), these researches are expected to provide an insight into quicker methods that will decongest the seaport facilities. Other studies also indicate the degree of transport cramming in relation to how it has led to reduced competition and growth of various businesses in states of the US states such as Los Angeles among other seaports (Weisbrod, Vary, & Treyz, 2003).

Concisely, these studies elaborate on the various negative consequences of transport congestion with respect to costs that are incurred in daily operations and in the localities among others. This state of affairs also leads to more accumulations of inventories that result in minimal distribution of products to minimize risks that are associated with shipping costs (Figliozzi, 2010).

The INRIX traffic record indicates that transport congestion data in the USA increased by three scores in 2013. The gross domestic product (GDP) also increased by approximately 2-percent. This increment is high as compared to the preceding two years. It also indicates that a growth in the economy will lead to further transport congestion. This situation will lead to more time wastage; hence, the overall production in the country is expected to reduce due to slow movement of merchandize.

The report also shows that drivers in the USA waste over 35 hours while sitting in traffic jams annually. Those who reside in congested towns spend additional 40 hours per year on average in crammed traffic. All these situations result in a total of more than15-percent of lost time. The INRIX reveals that Los Angeles is the most affected towns among the US seaports (Schrank, Eisele, & Lomax, 2012).

Interstate traffic in Los Angeles moves by about 14 miles per hour on average as reported by the INRIX. This speed implies a slow pace of combating the problem of transport congestion by the US government. Various other cities that are faced with the seaport cramming are listed in the below table.

Seaport City Commute time (in minutes) INRIX Congestion Score
Washington D.C Over 34 16.4
Boston 29.2 14.7
Seattle 27.6 17.6
San Jose 24.8 17.6
Bridgeport 28.3 19.1
New York 34.9 19.9
Austin 25.8 20.7
San Francisco 29.2 23.5
Honolulu 27 26
Los Angeles 28.8 28.6

Table 1: A table showing INRIX commute time and congestion scores of various seaports in the United States (Schrank, Eisele, & Lomax, 2012)

Schrank, Eisele, and Lomax (2012) reveals that the USA is experiencing increased traffic congestion within its seaports, especially the west coastal towns of Los Angeles, the Long Beach, Seattle, and Tacoma. The main reason for such congestions has been linked to deliberate slow offloading of cargoes that cannot match the pace at which more ships dock at the western coastline.

The shipment delays have resulted in nationwide complaints, especially by merchandizers of the US Agricultural Transportation Coalition (ATC) among others (Schrank, Eisele, & Lomax, 2012).

Summary of USA traffic congestion ranking of the top ten cities
Table 2: Summary of USA traffic congestion ranking of the top ten cities (INRIX, 2013)

Causes of Transport Congestion in the USA

Various ways that cause transport congestion in the USA include traffic incidences cause standstill or disrupt automobile flow on the motorways. Such cases include motor vehicle accidents and breakdowns among others (Cohen, Harry, & Southworth, 1999). Other incidences that augment motorway overcrowding at the seaports include debris blockages that make drivers slow down.

Sometimes, repair work in various areas and zones along damaged roads result in reduction of spaces in the driving ways, diversions, blockage, and/or closure of various lanes. Work sites that are located next to the roads also lead to delays and frustrations (Cohen, Harry, & Southworth, 1999). This situations cause slow movement of haulers and other motor vehicles within the seaports.

A pie chart showing the various reasons for traffic congestion
Graph 1: A pie chart showing the various reasons for traffic congestion

Frequent changes in weather conditions also lead to transport congestion in the port cities. Bad weather reduces highway visibility. As a result, drivers adopt slow speeds during the rainy seasons and while on highways that are facing bright sunlight. Smokes and fogs among others hurdles also lead to poor visibilities. A need for more haulers and conveyance equipment has also increased transport congestion in various port cities of the US. This situation has resulted in inconsistent transportation patterns.

Variability of traffic congestion at different times of the day or seasons such as peak hours among others also worsens the condition at the seaports. Other events that contribute to this menace include sports, auto and horse races, university ‘Move-in days’, festivals, state fairs, season shopping, and concerts among others (Cohen, Harry, & Southworth, 1999).

USA traffic systems have incorporated various highway features that facilitate traffic flow. For instance, Cohen, Harry, and Southworth (1999) reveal that certain control devices that are installed in various parts of highways that lead to the seaports assist in management of frequent disruptions of transportation flow.

Such devices are used to monitor level crossings on railroads and traffic lights among other functions. Other features that result in transport congestions include physical barriers that are influenced by a number of factors such as breadth of the motorway lanes, merging and interchange points, and alignment and grade curves (Cohen, Harry, & Southworth, 1999).

Negative Impacts of Transport Congestion

At the outset, many motorists and passengers now face direct impacts of transport congestions due to time wastage. This situation has led to reduction of the overall economic growth. The most common effects of traffic delays in the seaports include lateness to work, schools, and meetings among others. These situations further result in loss of business and procrastination of activities (Glaeser & Kohlhase, 2004).

According to Glaeser & Kohlhase (2004), poor time planning by drivers leads to less allocation of production time. The USA is also faced with amplified air pollution due to excess emissions of carbon IV oxide that is released by idling vehicles in the traffic jams among others.

The cost of maintaining automobiles that operate around the ports has also amplified due to repeated starts and stops that speed up tear and wear of various moving parts. Lastly, there are higher chances of vehicle collisions due constant stops and movements (Glaeser & Kohlhase, 2004).

Intermodal transportation

Intermodal transportation involves movement of people and goods in vehicles and/or containers using trains, ships, and trucks from a specific place to a designated destination. The method is very essential because of its ability to reduce frequent cargo handling. It also reduces damages that can lead to loss of products. As a result, it enhances quick transportation of merchandize (Rushton, Oxley, & Croucher, 2004).

The US transportation authorities have strived to merge various shipment networks by implementing intermodal means since the 1960s. For instance, the maritime and inland networks have been joined together through implementation of intermodal transport system.

This mode of transportation closely works together with trans-modal road networks that involve the movement of goods using haulers. Since the intermodal transport involves shifting of goods from one mode of transport to another (such as from rail to road), it is complemented by trans-modal networks that facilitate movement of such merchandize to the interior areas that are not reachable by ships and trains (Crainic & Kim, 2006).

The intermodal shipment mode significantly reduces congestion at the seaports. Consequently, it boosts the economy whilst ensuring shipment flexibility. According to Crainic and Kim (2006), this mode of conveyance is efficient since it operates under some concepts that pertain to the nature and quality of cargo. The USA uses this transportation system for both intermediate and finished goods that weigh below 25 tons (Crainic & Kim, 2006).

However, this mode requires good links with other transport networks that ease movement of trucks and locomotives from maritime to interior regions. Furthermore, it is frequently used when the distances between two terminals are wide apart. For example, it is mostly applied in situations where transportation takes two or three days. In such cases, movement of large containers and other heavy loads from the seaports requires both rail and road transport means.

Rail shipment moves heavy loads to specific terminuses. Trucks are then used to ferry the cargos to desired locations. Shipment and distribution are processes that necessitate quickness to save costs that are incurred during transportation. Therefore, the intermodal system provides a simpler means to save time and cost of transport.

Other concepts that enable intermodal transport include the value of the goods that are to be transported. Goods that have a higher value require direct delivery modes that use roads. Lastly, a consistence flow of goods between different terminuses requires intermodal transport (Crainic & Kim, 2006).

The US government has strived to implement the intermodal transportation system by integrating different modes such as rail and roads, maritime to roads, maritime to rail, mass transit and highways, pipeline and aviation among others. This great interdependent network has enabled the country to cut costs on transportation (Crainic & Kim, 2006).

Summary of the interraction between various intermodal transportation systems
Figure 1: Summary of the interraction between various intermodal transportation systems (Trip & Bontekoning, 2002).

External Mode

The external mode is only experienced when the modes of transportation of a given country are joined with those of its neighbor nations. For example, Canada and the United States share various transport networks such as the ocean, road, rail, and air. The external mode further eases transaction between the two countries since it acts as a pass-way (Crainic & Kim, 2006).

Terminals in Transportation

The points at which passengers and/or goods are collected or distributed for transportation are known as terminals. Various terminuses include rail and bus stations, airports, and harbors among others. The terminals are found in two positions within a transport network that include boarding and/or loading and destination (offloading) points (Rodrigue & Notteboom, 2012). Good are consolidated at the port and railway terminals to ease further distribution.

Intermodal terminals are frequently used in the United States where passengers travel by air and ship to other countries. At the seaport facilities, they change the transport modes to use the road or rail systems. Effective operational terminals should reduce dwell time. However, this characteristic is determined by the location, accessibility, infrastructure, and maintenance of the terminus (Rodrigue & Notteboom, 2012).

Map showing the USA National Highway System Plan to reduce congestion
Figure 2: Map showing the USA National Highway System Plan to reduce congestion (INRIX, 2013)

Infrastructure at the Seaport

Most countries that are not landlocked benefit immensely from international trade due to easy accessibility to global markets through seaports. Currently, the United States has been experiencing rapid increase in cargo shipment from cruise ships.

This situation has led to a significant growth of the economy. Currently, the government has prioritized various expansion plans that are aimed at improving its seaports, especially in the west coasts of Los Angeles among others to ensure long-term economic development (Rodrigue & Notteboom, 2012).

Recently, the president of the United States made signed an infrastructure improvement agreement in a move that is aimed at easing transportation on both land and waterways to enable access to seaports. This action was taken to curb problems that arose from frequent docking of large ships and growing population that has led to an increase in trade along the coastlines.

As a result, the government is expected to allocate more funds for expansion of both intermodal and trans-modal transport systems. Implementation of the agreement is projected to bring about interconnection of various seaports to other transport networks. Rodrigue and Notteboom (2012) reveal that this situation will significantly boost economic growth of the United States.

The country is currently experiencing an increased demand for goods in the Latin Americas and Asia. Therefore, shipping more exports to the world markets is necessary. Most of the United States economists have predicted an increase of export that will be higher than the imports in the near future. However, this situation will only be achieved if the infrastructure plan is implemented thoroughly to ease congestion and security at the seaports (Rodrigue & Notteboom, 2012).

To enhance shipment through quick loading and offloading of cargos, the United States port authorities have execute robust plans for further expansion of the harbors and related facilities to accommodate more vessels that dock at these points. Security also needs to be improved to ensure protection of people and cargoes that are collected at the seaports (Rodrigue & Notteboom, 2012).

Other countries also depend on the west coasts of United States due to their reliance on manufactured goods. A recent survey that was conducted by Rodrigue and Notteboom (2012) indicates that nearly all the imports and exports that reach the neighbor countries pass through the seaports of the United States.

Entry points

Entry points are places that are specifically designated for lawful reception of non-citizens of a particular country. The visitors’ passports and other essential records are verified at the entry points before they gain access to the country. Their baggage is also inspected for any arms that can raise security concerns. Most of the entry points in various countries are airports, airstrips, seaports, and other designated places at the boundaries of a country.

The entry points at the seaports are beneficial since they facilitate exchange of imports and exports amongst countries. This situation enables selling of local products in the global market, which allows expansion of businesses and growth of the economy (Jeffrey, 2005).

Currently, the USA entry points at the seaports handle around 2 billion metric tons of cargos per annum. This statistic is an indication of an excellent trade that boosts the country’s economy. As a result, the USA further plans to expand its seaport bases to increase shipment of people and goods.

However, the have been various challenges of illegal immigration due to poorly managed borders and entry points in the north US-Canadian border and the south where immigrants from the Caribbean islands and Mexico enter the country. Jeffrey (2005) reveals that over 10 million unregistered foreigners dwell in the US. This situation arises from laxity at the entry points and porous borders. Particularly, the southern US-Mexican border has been experiencing the highest rate of unlawful immigration.

As a result, the government has attempted to alleviate this situation by building a barrier in accordance with the Fence Act. This move is expected to reduce the rates of drug trafficking and terrorism. The vulnerability of the USA borders is further worsened by the increasing security gap since the patrols never monitor all the barricades. Most of the fences that are built to bar illegal immigrants from entering the country are usually incomplete.

As a result, some places along the borders provide through ways that are used by the illegal immigrants (Jeffrey, 2005). However, the US government is striving to solve various problems that are related to borders and entry-points through establishment of immigration reforms together with current technological information. The government is also planning to liaise with the local authorities to increase vigilance along the borders among other measures (Jeffrey, 2005).

Personnel

Border personnel are people who are employed to monitor the various entry points along the boundaries of a country. In the US, these people are aimed at enabling efficient handling of registration and verification of information of both immigrants and emigrants. They also ensure that security is provided at these places so that incidences of terrorism among others are minimized.

Although the personnel at the border and ports of the USA control such cases, challenges are currently faced at the entry points (Jeffrey, 2005). Insufficient infrastructure and security protocols at such points affect the expected economic gain of the country. Most of the entry points have become more porous due to laxity of the personnel who are also inadequate to protect the border points effectively (Jeffrey, 2005).

The personnel who monitor the southern borders of the USA are facing major challenges due drug trade and increasing security gap that exists between the national and local governments and the environmental personnel. The construction of fence along the Mexico-USA border is also under threat due to disagreement between the patrol security and environment personnel (Jeffrey, 2005).

Security at the Seaport

Countries with most efficient security protocols perform better in terms of trade; hence, they experience economic boosts since many people feel more secure to transact their businesses. Currently, the United States has above 350 seaports along its coastline that require improved security.

The various departments that deal with issues of security at the seaports include Operation Safe Commerce (OSC), Transportation Safety Authority (TSA), the Department of Transportation, customs department, the United States Coast Guard, the Department of Defense, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), the State Department, and the Justice and Commerce Department among other authorities (Frittelli, 2008).

The United States has invested a lot in the security sector, especially in the seaport, since these areas are the hub of its growing economy. The government has strived to enhance the homeland security by creating fusion centers. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is charged with the responsibility of sensitizing various workforces to the key issues that influence security in the country. The DHS also has a connection to the federal systems; hence, it enables the government to enhance security in various entry points along the borders.

The government has also remained in the forefront to sensitize its citizens to the importance of reporting activities that pose security threats to the country. To achieve this objective, various authorities are charge with the responsibility of training the local law enforcers on ways of recognizing crime and terrorism behaviors.

This education elucidates on how the behaviors can be analyzed properly by providing relevant information to the security personnel. On the other hand, the DHS has also offered over 30 billion dollars to promote preparation of risk prevention and response to terrorism and other threats (Frittelli, 2008).

The security at various seaports also conducts frequent screening for proper identification of risky passengers. This strategy is practiced to curb cases of terrorism at the seaports. It also ensures that the seaports are more secure. For example, in the 2008, the government identified numerous cases that were related to terrorism before the people entered the country (Frittelli, 2008). Security personnel have been deployed in various intermodal sections at the seaports to improve safety and security.

The government launched baseline surface transportation security assessments in 2006 to ensure safe transit transportation at various harbors. Seaport authorities also conduct frequent container checks to identify containers that can pose potential security risks.

The DHS is now implementing detection technologies at the seaports to scan all containers and cargo. Lastly, security vulnerability assessment is also conducted at the seaports to identify high-risk points and provide security measures that should be taken to in case safekeeping is required (Frittelli, 2008).

Maritime Laws

Maritime laws in the USA are used to regulate operations along the seaports and other water bodies in the country. Specifically, the laws govern navigation, waters, docks, maritime liens, shipping, and piracy activities among others (Papavizas & Kiern, 2007).

Maritime Transportation Security Plan

The maritime security plan of the USA was established to enhance security operations on the seaports and other maritime areas. This system plan ensured improvement of the security at the various networks that cover maritime and shore localities that interrelate to various modes of transport. The maritime security plans are based on various factors.

At the outset, it entails a security component that deals with ships, infrastructure, and cargo in an attempt to ensure that the regulations are put in place to prevent situations of insecurity (Helmick, 2008). The second aspect deals with interface security at various points of maritime transportation systems where there are interactions of various modes; hence, it ensures security at all times. Information security is the third element whereby cases of exploitation by terrorists as well as corruptions are curbed.

This aspect ensures efficient management of security data to improve security of the maritime areas. Lastly, a network of security ensures security enhancement during maritime transportation activities. The maritime security personnel work together with the DHS to ensure risk management and proper handling of security information. It also regulates both national and international safety frameworks to improve the business environment at the seaports (Helmick, 2008).

Transportation Security Systems (TSS)

The Transportation Security Systems (TSS) operates under the Transport Security Administration (TSA), which is a department of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) that ensures transport security within the United States. The transport security system is mandated to transport safely goods and people all over the country as well as outside the country. A committee of the US Department of Homeland Security manages the transport security system (Wensveen, 2012).

The committee ensures that various modes of transportation such as railroads, mass transits, trucks, and pipeline among others are secured properly. The security of transportation in the USA has been facing problems that emanate from issues of terrorism due to multiple entry points that are heightened by the surface transportation system. Currently, a combined force from the TSA and DHS sections provides a unique approach to handling of security issues that pertain to transport systems (Wensveen, 2012).

Various transportation security systems have been established to manage aviation sectors such airstrips and ports, and heliports among others. In addition, other security infrastructures have been installed along motorways to monitor motor trucks, maritime transportations, mass transit, passenger trains, pipeline systems, freight rail systems, postal, and shipping systems (Wensveen, 2012).

This situation has led to a notable improvement in the overall seaport security due to monitored movement of products and people in and out of the facilities.

Federal Highway Administration

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWAS) operates under the transportation department. The FHWAS is mandated to ensure mobility efficiency on highways through provision of good leadership, management, and innovation in the sector. This administration works together with other departments that include federal, state, and other local agencies to ensure protection of highway systems. It covers areas such as roads that pass through the interstates among others.

The highway administration also ensures reduction of transport congestion on highways, safety, and usage of current security technology. In addition, the FHWAS has also introduced new mechanisms and techniques that ensure efficient transportation of passengers and goods within the United States (Figliozzi, 2010).

Regulated laws

Various stakeholders of the highway administration and department of transport consistently regulate the laws that govern transportation mainly to ensure safety. Most of the passengers commute by buses across the states and cities of the United States (Kwasniewski et al., 2009). Currently, the department of transport has proposed regulations to protect passenger coaches and large buses against roller crashes. This proposal has been endorsed to improve on the designs and shapes of buses to improve safety of the passengers.

According to the laws, the buses should ensure that the emergency doors are operational at all times. In addition, the spaces between the passenger seats should be favorable (Kwasniewski et al., 2009). Furthermore, they emphasize on technology that assures improved stability of the buses to prevent rollovers (Kwasniewski et al., 2009).

The laws that determine the hours of service for trucks are also regulated. The law allows drivers to operate within a range of 11 to 14 hours in a day. Goetz and Vowles (2009) reveal that the maximum working period for truck drivers was reduced from 82 to 70 hours in a week. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) also provides regulations that govern aviation in the United States (Goetz & Vowles, 2009).

Other regulated laws address cases of disabilities. For instance, the ‘Americans with Disability Act of 1990’ ensures that incapacitated individuals are given opportunities to use public transportation systems at all times. Both public and private sectors must assist these people in cases where they need transportation services. As a result, the law requires the sector to promote installation of assistance gargets and equipment such as lifts to facilitate entry and exit of transport facilities by the disabled people (Goetz & Vowles, 2009).

Deregulation Laws

Deregulation of laws entails the total removal or minimization of strict regulations. An example of a deregulated law is the 1978 Airline Deregulation Act that partly changed the control of air travel that was initially done by the political section. The control of air travel was taken by the economic liberation air travel from the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB).

The shift has benefitted the United States economically since challenges of low cost carriers are handled effectively. Although the deregulation of the law was beneficial, it was not implemented fully since the sectors that dealt with the grid infrastructure were under the control of the government (Goetz & Vowles, 2009).

Department of Transportation

The United States Secretary of Transport superintended the formation of the department of transportation (DOT) in 1966 in an attempt to ensure efficient and accessible transport networks across the United States (Kwasniewski et al., 2009).

Various agencies that work under the DOT include the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Federal Highway Administration (FHA), the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), the Maritime Administration, and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).

The Office of the Inspector General and Secretary of Transportation also operate under the department of transportation. Other government agencies that work together with this department include the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), the Surface Transportation Board (STB), the Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), and the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation (Kwasniewski et al., 2009).

Functions of the Department of Transportation

The department enables formulation of policies to ensure effective utilization of transportation systems such as railroads, mass transit, ports, and waterways navigation among others. It also plans the development of both public and private transportation modes. In addition, it controls and administers safety means for railroad and motor vehicles in interstate businesses.

Furthermore, it also manages rules and regulations that govern the transport sector. Lastly, it supervises safety activities on various bus lines, railroads, and subways in an attempt to maintain high-end security for passengers and cargo (Kwasniewski et al., 2009).

Policy and Politics

An effective transportation system needs understanding of policies and the political situation of a given nation. Activities that involve planning and execution of strategies to build infrastructure require inclusion of various stakeholders such as the government and private sectors (De Jong, Gunn, & Walker, 2004).

Government Roles

The United States government has taken the initiative to provide facilities for transportation system. For example, it has continued to invest money in building more facilities to promote railroad construction and maintenance. The government has also collaborated with various organs of the private sector to promote contribution of funds to construction activities among others (De Jong, Gunn, & Walker, 2004).

Another role of government is its involvement in the initiation and provision of proposals that seek privatization of some facilities such as airports, highways, and ports within the country. The federal agency enables the running of these programs and establishing the scope for inclusion the government. The local authorities are also involved in the transportation system to raise their economy through formulation of decisions that promote trading systems.

The involvement of the government in the transportation sector has significantly influenced the flow of freight from one terminal to another (De Jong, Gunn, & Walker, 2004). Various functions of government at this stage involve investment in the ports, railroads, and airports.

It also encompasses collection of taxes from the businesses that operate the freights in the seaports and other sectors of the transportation system. In addition, it provides regulations that control the movement of freights in the intermodal system. Finally yet importantly, it provides guidelines that pertain to environmental management, safety, and security among others (De Jong, Gunn, & Walker, 2004).

Political Aspects

The political aspect mainly entails the influential technique towards enhancement of various projects that are related to the transportation system. Most stakeholders in the United States adopt varying lobbying strategies in an attempt to seek government support with a view of expanding the transportation networks due to increased shipment at the various seaports.

Good policies that support greater investments in the transportation sector can only be implemented through the influence of the initiators and policymakers among others. Therefore, politics play a crucial role in commanding high numbers of people to support the idea (Wensveen, 2012).

Most of the lucrative projects fail due to lack of political backing at the time of implementation. In the context of transportation, the government can impose tough measures and laws on traffic through lobbying activities by various stakeholders in the transport system. However, such laws can be easily regulated to benefit the majority.

Politics are also significant in processes where the networks across all the aspects concerning transportation and economy are required. For example, ferrying freight across various transport modes in different states can only be successful if the politics of the two states in context are in consensus (Wensveen, 2012).

Conclusion

The Although the United States of America has experienced various positive impacts on the economy due to congestion of people and freight within its seaports, the negative outcomes outweigh the benefits. As a result, the government and other stakeholders are investing heavily in the development of the existing seaports.

Various security systems have been established along various modal networks in an attempt to ease traffic congestion in the seaports. There is also a need to ensure constant improvement of security not only at the seaports but also in the interior transport networks and the entry points where higher risks of insecurity are detected frequently.

Reference List

Cohen, H., & Southworth, F. (1999). On the measurement and valuation of travel time variability due to incidents on freeways. Journal of Transportation and Statistics, 2(2), 123-31.

Crainic, T. G., & Kim, K. H. (2006). Intermodal transportation. Transportation, 14(1), 467-537.

De Jong, G., Gunn, H., & Walker, W. (2004). National and international freight transport models: An overview and ideas for future development. Transport Reviews, 24(1), 103-24.

Figliozzi, M. A. (2010). The impacts of congestion on commercial vehicle tour characteristics and costs. Transportation research part E: logistics and transportation review, 46(4), 496-506.

Frittelli, J. (2008). Port and maritime security: background and issues for Congress. Washington, DC: US Congressional Research Service.

Glaeser, E., & Kohlhase, J. (2004). Cities, regions and the decline of transport costs. Papers in Regional Science, 83(1), 197-228.

Goetz, A., & Vowles, T. (2009). The good, the bad, and the ugly: 30 years of US airline deregulation. Journal of Transport Geography, 17(4), 251-63.

Helmick, J. (2008). Port and maritime security: A research perspective. Journal of Transportation Security, 1(1), 15-28.

Kwasniewski, L., Bojanowski, C., Siervogel, J., Wekezer, J., & Cichocki, K. (2009). Crash and safety assessment program for paratransit buses. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 36(2), 235-42.

Papavizas, C. G., & Kiern, L. I. (2007). 2005-2006 US Maritime Legislative Developments. J. Mar. L. & Com, 38(1), 286-7.

Rodrigue, J., & Notteboom, T. (2012). Dry Ports in European and North American Intermodal Rail Systems: Two of a Kind? Research in Transportation Business & Management, 5(1), 4-15.

Rushton, A., Oxley, J., & Croucher, P. (2004). The Handbook of Logistics and Distribution. Kogan: London.

Schrank, D., Eisele, B., & Lomax, T. (2012). TTI’s 2012 urban mobility report. Proceedings of the 2012 annual urban mobility report. Texas, USA: Texas A&M Transportation Institute.

Weisbrod, G., Vary, D., & Treyz, G. (2003). Measuring economic costs of urban traffic congestion to business. Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1839(1), 98-106.

Wensveen, J. G. (2012). Air transportation: A management perspective. London: Ashgate Publishing.

This research paper on Transportation Congestion and Seaport Security was written and submitted by your fellow student. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly.

Need a custom Research Paper sample written from scratch by
professional specifically for you?

Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar

301 certified writers online

GET WRITING HELP
Cite This paper

Select a referencing style:

Reference

IvyPanda. (2020, March 27). Transportation Congestion and Seaport Security. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/transportation-congestion-and-seaport-security/

Work Cited

"Transportation Congestion and Seaport Security." IvyPanda, 27 Mar. 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/transportation-congestion-and-seaport-security/.

1. IvyPanda. "Transportation Congestion and Seaport Security." March 27, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/transportation-congestion-and-seaport-security/.


Bibliography


IvyPanda. "Transportation Congestion and Seaport Security." March 27, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/transportation-congestion-and-seaport-security/.

References

IvyPanda. 2020. "Transportation Congestion and Seaport Security." March 27, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/transportation-congestion-and-seaport-security/.

References

IvyPanda. (2020) 'Transportation Congestion and Seaport Security'. 27 March.

More related papers