The development of the three and four Masted ships in the 16th century was a major event in the history of the water transportation system.
Pilot embarkation is the task that allows the pilot to get to the ship safely. The stakeholders are the pilot, the shipping authorities and rules, and the ship staffs.
The biggest challenge occurs in the allocation of berthing systems especially in continuous terminals, which may result in undesired delays at the port, the dissatisfaction of customers and building a negative reputation for the port [...]
The scholars assert that the challenge defines the task of quay cranes to containers and the order of chores to be administered by each quay crane concurrently.
The use of technology enhances the efficiency of operations in dry bulk terminals. Notably, it is essential for individuals to be well informed about the operations and security of the dry bulk terminal.
The main reason for the surge in shipbreaking activities in South Asia is the availability of cheap labour due to the high population in the region and lax laws.
To manage transport congestion effectively, a combination of behaviors of the physical traffic and users' expectations of the operational ability of the system are merged.
The shipping container also improved the rate of industrialization. The invention of the container also improved the nature of operations in every seaport.
With billions of tons transported by the seas and oceans, the security staff is faced with challenging tasks of assuring that the commodities inside the multi-ton containers are safe and may safely leave the ports.
Beginning from 2001, the reality of the terrorist threat to America's ports has increased considerably including the risk of the nuclear attack with the so-called "dirty bomb".
Since the 11th September, the National Congress has created and passed an array of laws that relate to the maritime security, including the 2002 Maritime Transportation Security Act.