The traditional and the digital-and-other-emerging audiovisual technologies can augment experiences for different instructional designs, while meeting the needs of diverse learning styles.
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According to their functions, Lever-Duffy and McDonald (2011, p.288) classify audiovisual technologies into five: display individual static images (or photos); play television programs; display moving images; research support as well as play back music (or speech).
Zamudio (2004, p.3) classifies audiovisual technologies into three: synchronous unidirectional, synchronous bidirectional and asynchronous unidirectional.
The traditional nor the emerging audiovisual technologies neither supersede each other, but will depend on optimal solutions provided for the immediate needs of the teaching supported and the learning process involved.
Lever-Duffy and McDonald (2011, p.288) provide two broad classes of audiovisual technologies used to support learning, these are, the traditional and the digital-and-other-emerging. Based on functions, five types of audiovisual technologies have been identified; these are, display individual static images; play television programs; display moving images; research support and play back music.
Zamudio (2004, p.3) broadly classifies audiovisual technologies used to support the learning process into three families; namely, synchronous unidirectional, synchronous bidirectional and asynchronous unidirectional. Synchronous unidirectional offer one-way video as well as audio broadcast; while, synchronous bidirectional provide two channels between the source and the destiny. With asynchronous unidirectional, the user requests the server to provide access to one or more files.
Educators embrace these technologies in order to enhance the learning experience since the more interactive and multisensory the sessions are, the higher the teaching delivery.
Alternatively, if the learning sessions entail lectures alone, then the instructive experience is less engaging compared to audio and visual support (Lever-Duffy and McDonald, 2011, p.288). From an instructional perspective, audio and visual aids will add-value of engaging more of the learners’ senses and assist in building multiple cognitive connections to the content presented.
Optimizing these gains will only require educators to have a prior understanding of the array of technologies available and how each will contribute through meaningful contact with learners, while enhancing their mastery of the content. Neither the traditional nor the emerging will supersede the other without factoring the extent of provided solutions (needs met) by the individual technology.
Technology advancement is bringing new technologies, however the initial teaching and learning purposes of their application remains the same, significantly. This is not to be construed that the broadening of the range of technologies brought by emerging ones is not appreciated, their presence has brought flexibility and satisfaction for the diverse instructional preferences and tastes (Colbert et al. n.d, p.3).
Under the display individual static images function-type, traditional technologies used to support teaching and learning process comprise of overhead and slide projectors, bulletin board and posters; while the digital-and-other-emerging versions of the same comprise of the document camera, computer interface or the internet.
Projectors have the advantage of converged visual enlargement of the content for students to see. The educator has control over the content and pace of learning, thus may ensure no learner is left behind. For instance, building a concept through transparency overlays. The challenge presented by some of the commercial overhead transparencies is they are not fully customized to integrate some immediate instructional concepts of the educator (Lever-Duffy and McDonald, 2011, p.297).
Under the display moving images function-type, traditional technologies used to support teaching and learning process include the film projector and the video-cassette-recorder (VCR); while, the digital-and-other-emerging versions of the same comprise of DVD player, internet video and the computer CD-ROM. VCR circumvents the problem of scheduling presented by broadcasts, narrowcast or cablecast systems to schools.
For instructional purposes, the VCR is commonly used in the video library (or media center), where students can visit at the start of the academic year to preview curricula content for each module in order to plan in advance (Lever-Duffy and McDonald, 2011, p.301). VCR can play back images and sound; however, the speed of the captured video makes them real-time motion than a true-to-life image. The digital versions overcome this.
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Under the play back music function-type, traditional technologies used to support teaching and learning process include the tape recorder and the record player; while, the digital-and-other-emerging versions of the same comprise of CD player, MP3 player and iPod. MP3 applies compressed audio content but with high-quality sound.
Playback speech technologies have limited diversity in their educational applications. Some technologies like MP3 require software programs as a platform to play. Much as some of the programs are freely downloadable from the internet, there are wide ranges of MP3 files (Lever-Duffy and McDonald, 2011, p.293).
Under play television programs function-type, traditional technologies used to support teaching and learning process include the CRT monitor; while the digital-and-other-emerging versions of the same comprise of LCD or plasma monitor and the internet webcast. Most television stations, especially cablecasts may offer cable connections to schools within their area.
Most stations within the cablecasts (such as the Discovery Channel or the Cable News Network) offer instructional programming. This may augment existing instructional efforts within schools, thus enhancing the learning process (Lever-Duffy and McDonald, 2011, p.301).
Under the research support function-type, traditional technology used to support teaching and learning process are books while, the digital-and-other-emerging versions of the same comprise of multimedia CD-ROMs, e-books and internet searches. Compact Disks (CDs) have a desirable storage capacity.
Digital Video Disc (DVD) stores more high-resolution video than a CD. With the help of recorders, educators may augment classroom learning experiences through replays while lesson discussion is ongoing. Recorders allow users (instructors in this case) of DVD to ‘burn’ playbacks, thus broadening opportunity to record video series for subsequent class lessons (Lever-Duffy and McDonald, 2011, p.305).
Colbert, M., Voglimacci, C. and Finkelstein, A. (n.d). Live, Audio-Visual Communication Systems for Distance Learning: Experience, Heuristics and ISDN. Retrieved from http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1151/1/14.7_videoconference.pdf
Lever-Duffy, J. and McDonald, J. B. (2011). Teaching and learning with technology. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc./Allyn & Bacon.
Zamudio, F. R. (2004). Audiovisual Technologies In Education. Revista Digital Universitaria, 5(10), 1-22.