Veils have been defined by Murphy, (1964), Secor, (2002) and Heath, (2008), as transparent or opaque clothing articles worn exclusively by women with the intentions of covering some parts of their heads or faces to protect them. According to Christians, the item is used to depict honour to items or places. On the other hand, complexions are natural skin colours, appearance or texture, particularly the face skin. Most complexions are destroyed as a result of heat exposure. This is based on the fact that, heat has the ability of destroying body tissues like skins (Grant, 1974) & (Hays 1998).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Veils Reduce Heat Effects on Women’s Faces specifically for you
807 certified writers online
According to Milton, 1994 and Marino, (2008) in hot conditions, effective body thermoregulation is reduced drastically, hence, need for a supplements to assist in reducing the effects of heat on human beings. In such scenarios, types of clothing worn plays a very important role in either impeding or accelerating evaporation, a part from assisting in preventing direct heat radiations from reaching the skin. The major reason being some cloths are “pervious to sweat, but impervious to radiant heat from the sun” (Marino, 2008: 24). However, there are other clothing which are impermeable to sweat, such clothing do not facilitate evaporation, hence contributes to heat stresses (American Society of Safety Engineers, 1994).
Research Problem and Justification
Though there have been many studies dealing with the use of veils like socio-sexual, socio-cultural along with psychological functions of veils, but little information exist on the use of veils in reducing heat effects (Kakuta, et al 2001),on women’s faces and helping them protect their complexions particularly in hot areas.
As a result, from the foregoing discussions, it is of great importance for research to be done and especially focusing the positive side of the use of veil and in particular in reducing heat effects and helping in protect the complexion of the women and especially in the very hot areas. As such, the use of veils is critical in prevention of sunburns and even complexion. This is a critical area that needs more research to identify the potential medical implications associated with the wearing of veils.
Importance of This Research
Based on the results of this research, policy makers will be in a position to make policies concerning the materials upon which veils will be made from, and even come up with pricing policy which will ensure that veils are affordable and accessible to all that needs them. This is because; they will be in a position to understand the implications of veils in medication, particularly reducing heat effects and protecting complexions in hot areas.
In addition, from this research, programs will be created to educate people particularly women on medical implications as a result of wearing veils particularly during hot seasons. These programs will aim at changing the perception of women towards veils, not to see them as a punishment imposed to them by men, but a way of protecting their complexion and reducing heat effects. Based on the research outcomes, programs will also be created to educate these in the textile industry on the type of material from which veins are to be made from and even different designs of making them.
Last but not least, due the fact that most women wear veils just because of religious purposes, or even cultural purposes, this research aims at increasing knowledge on the medical implications of wearing veils. This is basically in the prevention of sunburns and protection of complexions. Apart from this, this projects aims at expanding knowledge on the best materials upon which veils should be made from.
The main objective that will be covered in this research will be identifying positive side of the use of veil and in particular in reducing heat effects and helping in protecting the complexion of the women and especially in the very hot areas. As such, the use of veils is critical in prevention of sunburns and even complexion. However, in dealing with this objective, the study will be dealing with the following specific objectives:
- To identify different effects of heat on women body particularly women.
- To identify different ways through which women have reduced heat effects on their body
- To identify different types of veils on the market.
- To identify different materials upon.
- To identify different uses of veils.
- To identify different ways through which heat is lost from the human body.
In fulfilling these specific research objectives, the study will be dealing with the following research hypothesis:
- H1: heat affects human body in different ways
- H2: there are many ways of reducing effects of heat on women’s body
- H3: on the market, there are different types of veils
- H4: there are different types of materials upon which veils are made from
- H5: veils have many uses
- H6: there are different ways through which human body losses heat
Population and sampling frame
The population of interest in this research are residence of northern parts of Africa, particularly Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Niger, and Chad among other countries. This is because, this population lives in hot areas and most women in this area wear veils for religious purposes. This population was chosen because; they are in a position to give vital information regarding the use of veils in reducing the heat effects on women’s Faces and protect their complexion.
Due to the fact that the population size under study will be infinite, the sample size that will be chosen for the study will be 600 respondents. All the respondents will be 17 years and above in age. This sample size will be convenient, though small for such like a study. This is based on the fact that, they usually pose lots of challenges to any form of statistical analysis as well as the results in decreased predictive potential when compared to models developed by the use of a larger sample. However, due to intensive sampling procedure that will be undertaken, the sample will be in a position to represent the whole population, as they will be reliable. As a result, random sampling, snowball sampling, stratified sampling and careful biased techniques will be employed in the process of selecting the research sample. Random sampling technique will be employed to ensure that the whole population has equal chances of being selected. To attain this, the whole population will be divided into samples that will be a representative of the population (Adèr, Et al, 2008) and (Ebbinghaus, 2005).
On the other hand, careful biased sampling technique will be employed with the aim of ensuring that specific individuals particularly women and people working in the textile industry are selected. The use of stratified sampling will be to distinguish or subdivide individuals depending on their religion and social status in the society (Yu & Cooper 1983). In addition, snowball sampling technique will be used particularly in coming up with research samples, where existing research subjects are used in the recruitment of future subjects from among their acquaintances. As a result, sample groups will be appearing like a rolling snowball. By the time the sample will be building up, more and enough data will be collected. In most cases, snowball sampling technique has been applied in hidden populations which are not easy to be accessed by researchers.
Going with the recommendation that was made by Salganik & Heckathorn (2004), this form of sampling makes it much easier for me as a researcher to include individuals whom I dint know in my research. Apart from this, the technique will also allow me to locate individuals who have vital information that might be very hard to locate. However, the main downfall of this sampling technique is that it is prone to the creation of biasness.
Methods of Data Collection
To ensure that the collected data addresses all specific research objectives, both primary and secondary sources of data will be used. It is good to note that, before collecting data, it is good to seek permission from relevant authorities from the regions targeted. This will be of great help particularly in eliminating plagiarism, apart from making the report comprehensive and conclusive.
Get your first paper with 15% OFF
According to Creswell, (1994) any research, “main activities include outlining required data, data collection preparing material & tools, and the arrangement of the needed assistance. The tools will include preparing, the questionnaires structures and questions and the data collection items to record the collected data.” (Creswell, 1994)Forms will be designed in a manner that the collected data is apart from being systematic, it is easily understood. Before data analysis, the findings will be presented just after data collection. In this stage, the collected data will be sorted and arranged appropriately to give them meaning. This will in one way or the other will ensure time management, precision and accuracy of the collected data. This is in line with what Beiske (2002) and (Creswell, 2003) recommended.
Primary methods will be used depending on where they apply most. Such methods will include interviews, observation and questionnaires. First and foremost, questionnaires will be used in the collection of relevant quantitative information. Questionnaires will be distributed to respondents located in target regions, and will be collected latter, while others will be collected on the same day depending on the agreed date. This method was chosen because of its ability of covering a very large area within a very short period of time. This is because; they can be distributed to different respondents at the same time. Since questionnaires are standardized, they are more objective, and data collected from this method is easy to analyze due to tool familiarity. In addition, respondents are not given room to be apprehensive, apart from being cost effective as compared to either face-to face interviews. Last but not least, questionnaires reduce biasness during data collection.
Questionnaires will be administered to women who wear veils as they will be in a better position of providing required data. I expect that, these individuals will so pass such questionnaires to other individuals who know and use veils for different purposes. Cohen & Manion, (1996), stated that, as a tool of data collection, questionnaires have a tendency of respondents forgetting vital information; as a result, they might answer questions superficially when it is a long one. To ensure that this does not happen, I will develop a short but inclusive questionnaire. As a result of standardization, there is no room for explanation in case the respondent has misinterpreted or has not understood the question. This will be in line with the conclusion made by Cohen & Manion, (1996) on questionnaires. I intend to eliminate this error by including an interview to many respondents who will provide different answers. The two results will be combined to make out a comprehensive as well as conclusive analysis.
Observation method will also be used in data collection. This technique will be selected because it has the ability to provide more accurate information as compared to other tools. However, this tool has some shortcomings, namely: with the kind of information collected from observation, it analysis is much challenging. In countering this, I will look for qualified personnel who will be in a position to interpret physical as well as outward traits associated with the effects of heat on complexion.
As a supplement of the two tools above, interviews will be used. This method will be selected because after the research, as a researcher, there is need to have direct first hand information. Both the interviewer and interviewee will have to clarify research issues, hence being able to obtain information which is authentic and well elaborated (Yu & Cooper, 1983). The interview questions will just be revolving around specific objectives, where the interviewee will be requested to briefly expound on issues regarding the use of veils in reducing heat effects and complexion protection. This method is also flexible in case questions are not well grasped questions are not well grasped by the interviewee. This is because; I will rephrase and elaborate the questions. Nevertheless, interviews will allow me to learn about facts and things that can’t be observed directly. Last but not least, interview adds internal viewpoints to the outwards behaviours.
Though Patton, (2002) mentioned lots of advantages, interview method is very slow, as the process need the interviewer to interview one person at a particular juncture, can’t fully trace events as well as trends that may be occurred in the past. This tool is also expensive as compared to other tools like questionnaires. Last but not least, this method is subject to interviewee and interviewer biasness. However, to eliminate this, a very tight structural time frame will ensure that everything works according to stipulated timetable.
This will include materials from the library, internet as well as related reports which will provide data concerning uses of veils and heat transfer. Some information has been compiled by medical practitioners regarding effects of heat on human body. Other materials include government sources, previous research studies and academic institution (colleges and universities material related veils). Secondary sources are will be of great help particularly in supporting what has been collect through primary methods that is observation, questionnaires and interviews.
Parametric statistics will be used in data analysis. First, collected data will filtered, modelled and transformed in a way that exposes vital information in drawing conclusions and recommendations before coding. Descriptive statics will also be used in data analysis. T-test will be carried out to test research hypothesis. This parameter will be calculated through statistical programs like SPSS. In finding out significant issues, principle component analysis will be carried out. Logical regression and correlation analysis will be calculated to establish the relationship between heat effects and kinds of veils worn. T-tests will also be employed in determining relationships between type of veil, and materials upon which it is made up of. In the process of analysing demographic traits like age, gender, social class and medical implications, descriptive statistics like frequency, means graphs will be employed (Pallant, 2007. Result presentation will be through of tables, charts and tables.
There will be a brief message provided with the survey questionnaires and interview guides to give an idea of the purpose of the survey, its confidentiality and the time it would take to complete it. This will allow the users to decide if they would want to participate in the survey or not. A detailed introductory message will be provided in the first page of the survey to claim that the intention of the survey will be for the academic purpose alone (AIAA, 2007), (Mavinic, 2006) and (Chanson 2007). Also, the message will assure the respondents that their responses and opinions would remain highly confidential. Their identities will not be provided in the appendices and only their roles and age will be provided. They will be informed that they were not representing anybody or any institution in sharing their views but their own in regards to the Evaluating the role played by veils based on their experience (Shaw, et al, 2009).
Work Plan and Timeframe.
|September-October 2011||Proposal development||4 weeks|
|October-December 2011||Data collection||12 weeks|
|January-February 2012||Data analysis and interpretation||8 weeks|
|March 2012||Typing, editing, and drafts for assessing by the supervisor||4 weeks|
|April 2012||Final report writing and presentation of the project||4 weeks|
Stakeholder and Community Participation
In undertaking this research, I will undertake various community participation activities. First of all, I will participate in various cultural and religious activities where veils are won. In doing this, I intend to educate them on the potential medical implications of wearing veils, and the type of veils to wear.
I will also visit textile industries to learn on types of materials from which veils are made from. Apart from this, I will also recommend to them the best materials upon which veils should be made up of. This because, there are materials like cotton which encourage heat loss from the body and are impervious to heat radiant from the sun, while others will do the reverse. So ,to ensure that potential medical implication from wearing veils have been attained, cotton some materials should be encourage while other s should be discouraged. In addition, I intent to participate in policy making process, to come up with policies that reduces the effects of heat, and protection of women complexion particularly in hot areas.
Importance of the Research
This research is very important to me as a student to graduate in my area of study. As a student, this research is a requirement needed to fulfil the course am pursuing in health and medicine. Apart from this, the research process is very important to me as a student particularly in acquainting me with enough knowledge and experience in evaluating the usefulness of particular research methods for carrying out public health research. In addition, I will gain more experience particularly in determining appropriate methods for the research proposal and research as a whole. Nevertheless, through this research, I will gain knowledge and experience on different ways of writing and developing simple research proposals, and how to carry out simple public research in public health. I will also acquaint myself with ethical issues involved in research. Last but not least, this research will help me know different ways of assessing the motivation as well as rationale for research designs.
To the ongoing discussions on veils and protection of women complexion particularly in hot areas, this research will contribute lots of information on this particular topic. This is based on the fact that, this will be a very great important research that will be carried out particularly focusing on the positive sides of using veils and in particular in the reduction of heat effects as well as helping in protecting the complexion f women. This study will assist in the discussion by identifying different ways through which heat effects can be reduced in human by the use of veils. This information will be very vital particularly as the topic has been of great importance particularly in looking at potential medication implications associated with wearing of veils.
To religious people particularly the Muslim community and Catholic nuns, along with cultural people, this research will be of great importance particularly in supporting their practices. This is based on the fact that, there are some women who feel oppressed by their cultures and religion to wear veils. This is because, they are only explained their cultural and religious functions of them covering their faces or heads with veils. However, this study will bring the issue of potential medical implications associated with wearing of veils. As a result, more women will feel free to wear them in good faith, hence encouraging religious and cultural believes.
Adèr, J. Et al. (2008). Advising on research methods: A consultant’s companion. The Netherlands: Johannes van Kessel Publishing.
AIAA, (2007). Publication ethical standards: Guidelines and procedures. AIAA Jl. 45(8): 1794-845.
American Society of Safety Engineers, (1994). Heat stress and heat disorders. Web.
Beiske, B. (2002). Research Methods: Uses and Limitations of Questionnaires, Interviews, and Case Studies. Manchester: University of Manchester.
Chanson, H. (2007). Research quality, publications and impact in civil engineering into the 21st Century. Publish or perish, commercial versus open access, internet versus libraries? Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, NRC. 34(8): 946-951.
Creswell, A. (1994). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage
Creswell, J. (2003). Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage publication.
Ebbinghaus, B. (2005). When less is more: Selection problems in large-N and small-N cross-national comparisons. International Sociology. 20(2): 133-152.
Grant, J. (1974). A source book in medieval science. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
Hays, J. (1998). The burdens of disease: Epidemics and human response in western history. Lioness Rutgers University: Lioness Rutgers University Press.
Heath, J. (Ed). (2008). The veil: women writers on its history, lore, and politics. California: University of California Press.
Kakuta, N. Et al. (2001). Estimation of radioactive heat transfer using a geometric human model. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 48 (3), 324–331.
Marino, F. (2008). Thermoregulation and human performance: physiological and biological aspects. Medicine and sport science. Basel, Switzerland: Karger.
Mavinic, D. (2006). The “art” of plagiarism. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, NRC. 33(3), iii-vi.
Milton, A. (1994). Temperature regulation: recent physiological and pharmacological advances. Switzerland: Birkhäuser Verlag.
Murphy, R. (1964). Social distance and the veil: American anthropologist. New Series, 66(6): 1257-1274.
Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS survival manual: A step-by-step guide to data analysis using SPSS, 3nd Edition. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Patton, M. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods, (3rded). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Salganik, M. & Heckathorn, D. (2004). Sampling and estimation in hidden populations using respondent-driven sampling. Sociological Methodology 34(3): 193–239.
Secor, A. (2002). The veil and urban space in Istanbul: women’s dress, mobility and Islamic knowledge. Gender, Place and Culture. 9(1), 5-22.
Shaw, S. Et al. (2009). A double-edged sword? Health research and research governance in UK primary care. Social Science & Medicine. 68, 912-918.
Yu, J., & Cooper, H. (1983). A quantitative review of research design effects on response rates to questionnaires. Journal of Marketing Research 20, 36-44.