Some of the most interesting aspects of child development are the biosocial, cognitive and psychological development.Reading these aspects can be interesting, especially if you have a child who is still developing. In order to understand these aspects fully, scientists have come up with numerous theories to explain the development stages right from birth to adulthood.
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Although some people have widely criticized some of the theories, the truth of the matter is they address the various development stages we take the general based model to address the biosocial, cognitive, and psychological development of a six-year-old child. In trying to address these three paramount issues, the paper takes note of the extensive variations in what very many child development experts consider as “normal”.
Some of the factors behind child development include family, cognitive, educational, and genetic. Depending on the suitability of these factors, children will reach certain stages at different times. However, this paper discusses development stages of a normal six-year-old child. This is simply because every child is unique and therefore, the development stages can vary with time and other factors (Rollercoaster, 2012, p.1).
In very many developed countries, six-year-old kids are conversant with school and kindergarten related activities. In other words, a child develops aggression towards independence in this year. However, the idea to separate from their parents is not something that they are in apposition to do no matter how independent they want to be. These kids are taking steps towards discovering the world they found themselves in some years ago. The truth of the matter is that not all six-year-old children share similar abilities and development traits.
They can actually vary form one child to another due to their uniqueness. At this age, the kids have different preferences, experiences, and each one of them is capable of things in certain ways. This is the reason why their abilities are not the same. Although each kid is unique, we assume a general milestone in addressing the similarities in the development stages of all six-year-old kids (Ruben, Fein & Vandenberg, 1983, pp. 690-698).
As seen above, one of the most significant things to note about six-year-old kids id their increased aggression towards routines and independence.
This does not necessarily mean that they want to leave their parents and become independent. In most cases, these kids spend most of their time in school, and away from their parents. In school, these kids participate in various activities, sometimes on their own. Sometimes, they can form groups and play together, or attend parties of their friends. Six-year-old kids also experience physical development.
For instance, the motor skills and the coordination are likely to develop as compared to the rest. Additionally, this is the age when most children develop athletic abilities. You will find many of them playing or running around. The growth rate will vary form one child to another, and that is the main reason why their heights will vary to a certain extent.
Experts also argue that six-year-old children always feel insecure when they are far away from the parents or their homes. They therefore crave for relieve and security either at home or from their parents. Other theories also depict that six-year-old children tend to experience an incredible learning augmentation once they enter kindergarten and start handling intricate materials. This is the period they start learning how to read, and some basic math, art, science and history solving skills will start develop (Higgins & Parsons, 1983, pp.15-66).
The biosocial development of a six-year-old child is also active at this particular age. In most cases, the child starts to develop interaction and other social skills.
It is quite amusing to note that these kids tend to emphasis relationships with people outside their homes, for example, teachers and pupils. Even as their aggression towards independence continues, these kids also tend to focus in other areas like forming very many fiends comprising of peers, teachers, and maybe other parents. As time goes by, they find that social interactions with the peers, friends or other people outside the family are complex.
Nevertheless, this does not stop them from interacting, as they become increasingly aware on what to do with such friendships. Another positive thing to note about these kids is that at this age, they understand rules better, and majority of them want to make sure that their friends follow the rules. For instance, if they are playing, they aggravate for organized games, which are devoid of controversy. You will find them forming teams to play each other a soccer match. Gender is also important here.
Those of the same gender would always want to play together, and one kid would choose another as the “best friend”. However, it is imperative for parents to watch the biosocial developments of the six-year-old child lest they develop abnormal behaviors such as hounding, cliques, and banishing others. Otherwise, this is the age when a kid navigates from one relationship to another hoping to find security and comfort (Ruben, Fein & Vandenberg, 1983, pp. 702-734).
Morals and rules
At six years of age, a child becomes increasingly aware of what is right and wrong. You will find many of them reporting or even summoning those who are not doing the right thing. At this age, break-ups among close friends are so common, but the goodness is they do not last for long, and you will find them becoming friends almost immediately.
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Giving, Sharing and Empathy
Having acquired a good number of friends and now playing together, six-year-old kids always like sharing some of the things they own for example, snacks and toys. The truth of the matter is that there is rivalry and scuffling towards picking the best-looking toy or taking many snacks, but as we have seen above, they forget their differences easily.
In fact, they can work out their conflicts without the involvement of a teacher or a parent. Perhaps one major thing to note about six-year-old kids is that they are too egotistical, and therefore they need tender support for them to learn the other side of life (Parten, 1932, pp. 243-269).
As we have seen above, six-year-old children have developed learning skills and therefore they are now reedy to enter school. At this age, they could be in kindergarten or in a nursery school. In school, they find a new world that is much different from that in their homes. Story telling, allotment, practical activities, and designing become so common, even as they embark on a journey of discovering what is in the books.
They are now ready to learn new skills such as decoding words due to the developed phonemic awareness. Their attention span begins to lengthen, and they become familiar with intricate projects and assignments assigned to them both at schools and home (Parkhurst & Asher, 1992, pp. 231-241).
Reading and Writing
This is the right age when children start learning how to read. In some cases, majority of the children of this age even begin to read on their own. Amazingly, some of them can even begin to write short stories (one paragraph) about their family, friends, or vacations. They are able to identify some words and with time, they break their sound.
Since they are still developing cognitively, with time, they become conversant with many vocabularies, and they can spell some words correctly. Children of this age can also identify punctuation marks, and apply capitalization in the sentences they construct. They also like reading simple stories about animals and monsters. Notably, after reading the story, they can re-tell it.
Numbers and Math
Six-year-old kids can count numbers much easier than they were in a year or two ago. Even as their cognitive skills increase, they will start mastering even higher numbers. Using sticks or other materials, they can add and subtract numbers in a given problem. They enjoy solving puzzles as well (Hagen, (1972, pp.66-78).
Six-year-old kids are good in mastering concepts. For example, they can read the time, and tell all days of the week. By this age, they can say more about the world, name some towns, and even state the day’s weather conditions. We can say that at this age, they are able to differentiate between real and imaginary things.
Six-year-old children are also developing psychologically. However, this type of development is in most cases characterized by contradictions. For instance, although they want to be independent, they also feel insecure and would always want to be at home with their parents.
At this age, this kids experience emotions. Although they are a bit conversant on what to say, they are able to read the emotions of other people. They also remain careful in uttering some critical words so that they do not offend others.
Confidence and Insecurity
Since they are involved in various activities both at home and school, they always crave for recognition and praise. In a way, this boosts their confidence. Parents should also be instrumental in teaching them the lines of confidence. When they feel insecure, they should be encouraged, and it is paramount to mention that these kids dislike criticisms and other negative admonishments. All they need is reaffirming assurance and understanding on the part of friends and parents.
Inflexibility and Preferences
Six-year-old kids always prefer to do things according to their way. If this does not happen, then they feel dejected. To them some things are good and some are bad. However, parents can educate them on what is good and bad (Rollercoaster, 2012, p.1).
At six years of age, children crave for some form of privacy. For instance, when they are dressing, they hide and they do not want anybody to see them. They also discourage the idea of bathing in front of their parents as well. Astonishingly, these children are also curious, as they want to discover their gender and sex. They may also start questioning their parents the origin of babies.
Hagen, J. W. (1972). Strategies for remembering. New York: Academic Press.
Higgins, E.T. & Parsons, J.E. (1983). Social cognition and the social life of the child: Stages as sub-cultures. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Parkhurst, J.T. & Asher, S.R. (1992).Peer rejection in middle school: Subgroup differences in behavior, loneliness, and interpersonal concerns. Developmental Psychology, 28(1), 231–241.
Parten, M. (1932). Social participation among preschool children. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 27, 243–269.
Rollercoaster. (2012). Stages of Development. Web.
Ruben, K. H., Fein, G. G., & Vandenberg, B. (1983). Socialization, personality, and social development. (4th ed.). New York: Wiley and Sons.