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American Political History Cause and Effect Essay

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Updated: Jun 17th, 2019


President Hoover offered the citizens of America very unsatisfying leadership despite the fact; the citizens were ready for change. People needed a president who would go out of his way to bring back the federal government to its economy.

At this time the illegible democratic candidate was Franklin D. Roosevelt who was deemed the right candidate with these qualities. With his chance at the white house, FDR came up with a New Deal aimed at bringing back the confidence of the Americans as well as revive the economyi. The subject on this paper examines the three key elements of the new deal as well as it’s the effects.

Elements of the New Deal

Roosevelt leadership discovered that the country was in need of three things; relief, reforms and recovery. The New Deal focused its attention on provision of relief to issues of unemployment, it also assisted in improving the manufacturing sector as it promoted strive to recover the economy.

The US financial system was also an aspect of reform. Roosevelt managed to instigate many acts of legislation and policies that transformed to New Deal – a statement that was a slogan in his inauguration speechii.


Relief was developed through job creation and especially through social programs. For instance job creation was developed through the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Many people were employed to construct electricity –producing dams.

The New Deal assisted them to build homes, state parks, roads and other public structures. The deal also assisted in construction of the social security system. It also encouraged membership of the workers in labor unions as well as, established farming policies ii.


Recovery was initiated through reforms on the American Financial System. This was apparent in the reforms on the Emergency Banking Bill of the 1933 which assisted in stabilizing the banking system. Roosevelt advocated for a balanced budget to aid in bringing out a balance.

It also aimed at improving financial responsibility as well as promotion of the economic growth and health. Roosevelt also advocated for involvement in the 2nd World War which was aimed at revitalizing the economy. The New Deal also assisted artists by funding them through the Works Progress Administration (WPA) ii.


The New Deal was also aimed at establishing lasting reforms. For instance, the many programs established by Roosevelt are still effective even in the 21st century. Examples of these programs include the, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Social Security program (SEC), The National Labor Relations (NLRA) and, the Federal Housing Federation (FHA) ii.

Effects of the New Deal on Society Economy and Politics

The New Deal instigated many reactions regarding to its impacts on the economy, politics and the society at large.

The Society’s Impact

The society benefited from the New Deal through the Rural Scene programs. These were new policies that developed great significance to the societies’ agriculture. For instance, the farmers benefited through the initiative of the agricultural adjustment Act which was passed in the year 1938iii. Through the Social Security Act, the poor were able to gain access to loans hence improving their livelihoods.

The loan value in this case, was determined through the amount of surplus of each farmer. Agricultural prices were also improved to act as a means of enhancing the federal aid. Rural electrification was also aimed at improving the living conditions of the societyiv.

The Economic Impacts

The Roosevelt administration improved the power of the federal government and especially the president. For instance, the president gained an active role in improving the economy through creation of jobs under regulation of the demand and supply. It also increased the government participation in management of disputes as well as settling labor.

The government also successfully established agencies to regulate banking such as The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Despite the fact, the New Deal did not end the great depression; it assisted in lowering occurrence of suffering. The New Deal gave people hope by restoring their sense of dignity. According to the statistics, the federal deficit went higher by $2.9 in the year 1934.

Due to cuts in the federal spending in the year 1937-1938, the deficit went down by $100 million and the year that followed, it also rose at $2.9 billion. The massive spending by the federal government is said to have ended the depression. This expenditure was based on purchase of ships, guns, airplanes and tanks among others iii.

Political Impacts

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s political campaigns promoted three basic elements that in turn promoted the main goals of the New Deal. He worked closely with administrators such as Harry Hopkins and, Herold Ickes to ensure that the New Deals program was effective. The New Deal aspired to ensure equitable funding on all the American states.

The distribution of funds led to improvement of the federal land as well as the construction of highways. Roosevelt dedicated the funding to areas of the state where good use would prevail. The local government was utilized to enhance improvement on issues of unemployment and improve the living standards of all the citizens.

Through the New deal, Roosevelt’s people were able to discover the fact, in the past leaders acted in a self-interested way. Roosevelt was however criticized for using the New Deal as a means of encouraging his re-election.

This was not actually the case since the efforts of various interest groups improved his focus on the New deal. People also attested to the role played by his key elements – relief and recovery. Through many publications, the New Deal has been praised, hence an indication that it was successful iii.


American history has gone through different kinds of leadership each with unique recordings. The era of Franklin Roosevelt is amongst the most memorable leadership. This is attributed to his unique role he played to bring change in the overall image of the country.

Anyone who recalled him linked their thoughts on the role of the New Deal which based its activity on three major elements – relief, recovery and reforms. Roosevelt managed to bring change through these three elements, hence most people benefited. In the overall, Roosevelt brought change economically, political and the overall well being of the society.

This led to improvement of living standards of the poor through massive creation of jobs. Although his government was not able to entirely end the Great Depression but he did much to improve the financial situation of the country. The federal government was granted more power to improve the economic situation of the country. The economic situation in America seems to have been the major subject of his agenda.


i Polenberg, Richard. The Era of Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933-1945: A brief history with documents. United States: Palgrave Macmillan. 2000.

ii Young et al. (2001). Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shaping of the american Political Culture. United States: M.E Sharpe. 2001.

iii Mckenna, James. Franclin Roosevelt and the Great Constitutional War: The Court-Packing Crisis of the 1937. United States : Fordham University Press. 2002.

iv Panchyk, Richard. Franklin Deano Roosevelt for Kids: His Life and Times with 21 activities. United States : Chicago Review Press. 2007.

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