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This study points out similarities and differences between the above two studies. Both studies have related topics but the authors are different. Both studies show that harsh parenting contributes to poor regulation of emotions and aggression in children.
The main goal of choosing these topics is to learn more on children psychology. I love working with children and I have noted that children have different personalities and emotions. Considering all other factors remain constant, their character or personality differs depending on parenting styles. As a result, I developed an interest to learn more on psychology of children. Usually a person’s character is majorly determined by immediate social environment. In addition, I want to offer academic, social and emotional assistance to children.
Being in psychology profession, these studies help in creating of awareness of issues related to harsh parenting. In addition, the studies establish the relationship between parenting and personality of a child as well as decisions they make in life. As a result, I will be able to share the knowledge, experience and ability with parents to enhance proper parenting.
Further, the studies provide information on models on development of support network for children with psychological problems resulting from harsh parenting. In addition, sharing the information with policy makers to make sure policies which protect the children are formulated and carried out.
Chang, Dodge and McBride sought to investigate how harsh parenting relates to emotion regulation and aggression. However Heidgerken, Hughes, Cavell and Wilson test the pathways through which parenting and social cognitive processes contribute to children’s aggression.
Definition of terms
Research study done by Chang and others gives a clear definition of terms. The study provides adequate characteristics of harsh which include yelling, name calling, aggression, overreaction and physical threats among others. The study is consists of abstract, introduction, method, measures, results, discussion and application in public policy. Opposed to the previous research, Heidgerken does not provide definition of terms. The study consists of abstract, introduction, methods of research, measures, results and discussion of findings.
The hypothesis in both studies is positive considering results presented. Study done by Chang and others shows that harsh parenting has direct and indirect effects on a child’s aggression in school environment. In addition, the author relates harsh parenting to poor regulation of emotions in a child. The study states that poor regulation of emotions coincides with harsh parenting resulting from negative interaction between a child and parent.
In addition, the study shows maternal anger has great impacts on a child compared to paternal anger because mothers spend most of their time with children compared to fathers. Similarly the study done by Heidgerken establishes a path between harsh parenting and aggression. However, the authors note that they have faith on results due to instability of test with samples. In addition, the authors did not test the relationship between aggression and cognitive processes.
The composition of subjects used in both studies is different. Subjects used in earlier study were majorly Chinese parents; both mother and father. In addition, the study also involved three teachers and 325 kindergarten children. In the Heidgerken and Hughes study, the subjects were of different races. In addition, the study involved children in second and third grade only; parent were not part of study. In earlier study children were from the same school. 55% of the children were boys and the rest were girls.
Moreover, the age range was between 3-6 years with 65% being 4-5 years. The average age for mothers was 34 years and mothers 32 years. Parents with college education constituted 50% for both mothers and fathers. The rest of participants had high or middle school education qualifications. In latter study, children were selected from fifteen different schools. It involved 421 children for experiment and 38 for control.
The earlier study involved 978 subjects; 3 teachers, 325 children and a pair of parents for each child. A questionnaire was administered to participating parents to provide information about them and children at home. Teachers filled a checklist related to behavior of children in class six months later.
The three teachers rated each child to choose participants in the study. Unlike the previous study, Heidgerken had children and control group for experiment. In the latter study, teachers nominated children of different sexes, race or ethnic group. However, the group had more girls, European American and few African -American children.
Classification of participants
The earlier study involved Chinese parents, teachers and children only: no other race. The children were further grouped according to age. Researchers grouped parents according to the level of education which included college, high and middle school. Further, the researchers grouped parents and children according to sex: male and female. However, the latter study involved children of different races and teachers only. In addition, they were both men and women.
Type of study
Both the studies are experimental researches because they had subjects which took part in the study. In addition, researchers did experiments to prove harsh parenting and dual mediation models. The study applies elements of correlation and it compares the outcomes between fathers and mothers. A comparison of effects on daughters and sons is also done. Unlike the earlier study, the latter one had control group for the experiment.
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The earlier study majorly used 2 types of close-ended questionnaires and behavioral checklist generated by teachers. Both parents filled a questionnaire on harsh parenting. It majorly involved how parents react towards a child. Mothers filled questionnaire on child emotion regulation by mothers only and it was concerning child’s reaction when angry.
Lastly, teachers had behavioral checklist which dealt with child’s aggression and was used in rating the behavior of a child in school. The latter study used verbal interview which was done face to face with participants. Participants were selected through information teachers gave on report form, aggression with peers or both. The groups’ method involved social cognitive profile, attributions, social goals, aggressive solutions and peer approval or retaliation consequences.
In both studies, hypothesis was adequately proved by the researchers. Chang’s study grouped subjects to meet an accepted sample-variable ratio. The aggression variable had three evaluations from the three teachers and their average results published. Harsh parenting and emotion regulation variables had two to four items randomly mixed to form a group.
The sample-variable ratio achieved was ten for entire sample and 5 when male and female were analyzed separately. The researchers learned that harsh parenting from both parents had negative effects on regulation of child’s emotions. As a result, the child could transfer the aggressiveness to peers at school.
In both studies, researchers claim the studies were statistically significant because they used sample-variable and chi-square methods to test hypothesis. In Heidgerken and Hughes study, the participants went through a five steps process to test the hypothesis. The steps included social cognitive profile, attributions, social goals, aggressive solutions and peer approval or retaliation consequences. Participants interviewed in relation to these steps.
The studies faced different challenges. Major limitation in the study done by Chang and others is that it lacked racial diversification. Different races have different cultures, so incorporation of other ethnic groups could have diversified the results. In addition, gender related theories were not put into consideration. Harsh parenting involves cross-sectional issues and in future studies should include the conditions which could lead to harsh parenting.
The researchers did not miss or overlook anything in both studies. They were able to find he gaps in the research. No problems met during proving of hypothesis. In the study done by Heidgerken and others, findings cannot be generalized because sample used had mainly composed of aggressive participants. In addition, aggressiveness in children should be viewed in two ways; as a cause and result of harsh parenting. Model generated may not be applicable in different races.
Both studies provide important information to on human behavior. The studies show that immediate surrounding influences human behavior. These studies show that family background can make or break a person’s character. I have learned that we transfer what we get from our parent to others.
In addition, the studies show that human behavior is subject to change. These studies have been effective in addressing my need to study this topic. The studies met my expectations and lessons aspired. My quest for information is adequately addressed by these studies.
Chang, L., Schwartz, D., Dodge, K., & McBride-Chang, C. (2003). Harsh parenting in relation to child emotion regulation and aggression. Journal of family psychology: JFP: journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43), 17(4), 598. (Databases by subject, Social sciences, PscyARTICLES search terms: harsh parenting, child’s aggression and emotion regulation).
Heidgerken, A. D., Hughes, J. N., Cavell, T. A., & Willson, V. L. (2004). Direct and indirect effects of parenting and children’s goals on child aggression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(4), 684-693. (Databases by subject, Social sciences, Psychology and Behavioral sciences search terms: harsh parenting, child’s aggression and emotion regulation).