Influences on healthcare and healthcare providers
- English Americans are also the Anglo-Americans.
- They trace their ancestries from the UK (England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland).
- Today, many English Americans simply identify themselves as ‘Americans’ because ‘English American’ is used only for census.
- English had easy acceptance in the US.
- They gained economic independence in the US and started to migrate in large numbers toward the end of the 19th century.
- English is the top or leading ethnic group in both contributing to and gains from the US.
- Rapid migration to the US started after 1776 (Wallechinsky and Wallace, 1981).
- The number increased steadily throughout the 19th century.
- Some immigrants wanted to develop model utopian societies in the US while others focused on economic benefits derived from the new land, railroads, mining, and industries.
- Migration increased because of the unrest in the UK, but later declined due to the 1893 depression until the 20th century.
- English Americans have been prominent figures in significant areas of the government and most aspects of the US life and economy.
Religious practices and rituals
- The Church of England dominated all colonies, including the US.
- English-trained clergies led religious practices.
- Many immigrants moved to the US to seek freedom from the Church of England and explore new religions.
- Denominations of the US and England found support in each other.
- The Episcopal and Methodist Episcopal churches remained active throughout the period and became parts of the Protestantism movements.
- Churches reflected the ethnic identity of believers.
- Most immigrant churches and American churches almost had similar scriptures and literature.
- The language is American English
- English dialects of the immigrants and English Americans born in the US differ in terms of vocabulary and phrases. English Americans tend to use slang words.
- English American dialect has become popular because of television, movies, theater, and performing arts.
- Accents indicated the difference between English and English Americans.
- However, many immigrants have lost their original accents after living in the US for many decades.
- It is also difficult to distinguish immigrants’ descendants by using their accents.
- Immigrants abandoned some aspects of their customs as they adapted and integrated in the US
- Immigrants had their associations of working-class fraternal, social, political, and literary organizations
- They brought English-style pubs for public meetings
- They formed choral groups, sporting clubs, self-help societies, unions, and fraternal organization,
- Some of these associations survived for a long time beyond the lifetime of their founders
- Under different social classes, English American women have dominated the domestic and social affairs of their families
- Women ensures good relations with extended families and family friends
- Men participate in public issues that affect families and business environments
- These roles differed, to some extent, based on social influence and family affluence women are also responsible for rearing children
- However, gender roles have changed significantly since the 19th century because of economic factors
Family values and the head of households
- Although the man is the head of the household, English American woman controls domestic and social affairs of the household, including external relationships with the family
- Women have facilitated family celebrations and reunions
- Parents, especially in middle and upper-class families, have educated and disciplined their children to nurture them for family and social obligations and businesses
- English Americans value families and rely on them, their kinsmen and contacts to allow them to blend in society and social circles
- English Americans have shared heritages, which have created different family structures from the native or mainstream Americans
- English (American) remains the main means of communication.
- Gestures are used to reflect the known standard meanings.
- Mass media have influenced communication since the 20th century as they shape cultures of English Americans.
- English American music, movies, theater, television, and other forms of communication and entertainment show minimal differences between communication patterns in England and the US.
- There are slight differences in dialects and vocabulary, which may indicate social classes and region of origin (Hanft, n.d).
- Phrases and words may differ, particularly about the American slang usages.
Healthcare practices and rituals such as the use of food, prayer, spirituality, and other methods to protect the health or prevent/teat illness
- English Americans believe in healthy diets for the well-being of the body and mind.
- Good hygiene reduce ill-health.
- Inventors of carbonated water claimed that it was good for health and cured several diseases, including morphine addiction, dyspepsia, neurasthenia, headache, and impotence.
- Prayers are for spiritual growth.
- They rely on Western medicine to cure ailments.
- There are no specific health issues associated with English Americans
- Many English Americans were the pioneers of Western medicine and societies
- Others have focused on modern health insurance, which they adopted from England during the 19th century
- English Americans have supported the National Health System, which they believe has benefits to the majority and employers
- Today, the US healthcare system has embraced the insurance system
Health risk factors specific to cultural background
- There are no specific health risk factors, including psychological conditions associated with the cultural background of English Americans.
- They tend to have a low prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, hepatitis B and C, relative to other minority races or ethnic groups in the US because of disparities in the healthcare provision.
- English American culture started to change in the 19th century and their lifestyles have changed significantly.
- Marital fertility among English Americans started to decline in the 19th century.
- English American fertility practices do not reflect any cultural orientations.
- Fertility practices and patterns have emerged from economic factors.
- Improved changes in relative incomes of women have led to a decline in fertility among English Americans.
- Childbearing practices have declined too.
- The use of contraceptives to control fertility has increased.
- English Americans have reduced childbearing practices.
- Generally, the US fertility rate remains higher than other developed nations.
- Women have found ways of combining work and childbearing, for example, modern firms have nurseries for mothers while stores have extended their business hours.
- Employers have provided flexible working hours for mothers and fathers.
- Views on sex roles have changed among couples as they tend to maintain small families.
- Religion relates to fertility and childbearing.
Views of pregnancy
- There are no clearly expressed views on pregnancy among English Americans
- However, modern practices and cultural changes, particularly abortion and the use of contraceptives have affected pregnancies
- Birth rates among English Americans have declined significantly each year because of delayed pregnancies
- White women tend to experience stigma during pregnancies
- Stigma increased as a function of depression status (current, past, never)
- They tend to keep depression associated with pregnancies as a secret (O’Mahen, Henshaw, Jones and Flynn, 2011)
Responses to aging
- Senior citizens or the aging baby boomers are linked with a rejection or redefinition of traditional values.
- The aging English Americans want privileges due to influences from government subsidies and increased affluence (Knechtel, n.d).
- The aging English Americans consider themselves as a special generation.
- The dramatic social change in the US created a rift between conservatives and advocates for social changes.
- The major challenges to them have been changes in lifestyles and associated diseases like obesity and another lifestyle ill health.
- The aging English Americans have inclined to stay physically active, challenging themselves psychologically, participating in community activities and entrepreneurship, and are actively focused on health and nutrition.
- Cultural changes have significantly affected death rituals among English Americans.
- Today, there are extensive care for the dead but not expensive (Gill, 1996).
- English tradition considered the corpse as an object with immense potency and power of its own.
- The old taboos are fading rapidly.
- The tradition required a ‘funeral feast’ after the burial or mourning.
- Towards the end of the 19th century, English Americans had started changing their attitudes toward the dead perhaps because of reforms in the public health system.
- Modern changes have affected death rituals as cremation increases while funeral losses its relevance.
- Memorial gathering and celebrations seem to be replacing funeral (Blakemore and Jennett, 2001).
- Memorial seems to be detached from the corpse as it happens later after disposal or funeral.
Responses to death and grief
- As funeral practices fade, celebrations and memorial services have emerged for the dead.
- Grief is not elaborated but a short a fair mainly among family members.
- Today, reactions to death and grief tend to be increasingly positive as people tend to give thanks for life rather than mourn the death.
- Bleakness and sorrow in the event of death seem to diminish among English Americans.
- English Americans have embraced death and life.
Cultural responses to health and illness such as blood transfusions, organ transplants, and organ donations
- English Americans tend not to associate ill health with cultural practices and their reactions tend to be individual decisions.
- Studies show that blood transfusions, organ transplants, and organ donations tend to be ‘white affairs’ (Alden and Cheung, 2000).
- “The donation authorization rate varied considerably according to the race of the donor as follow: 57% for Hispanic, 53% for Caucasian, 48% for African American, and 23% for Asian donor families”(Bratton, Chavin, and Baliga, 2011).
- Influences from others, especially elders tend to influence organ donations (Morgan, Kenten and Deedat, 2013).
Responses to health care providers including gender bias and privacy
- English Americans pioneered the healthcare system in the US.
- They tend to get the best healthcare services.
- Gender bias is not prevalent among English Americans in the provision of healthcare services.
- They tend to demand a greater sense of privacy, confidentiality, and accountability.
- The perceived discrimination is common among minority races and ethnic groups.
Concept of time-related to arriving at health care appointments on time and patient compliance with prescribed medical regimes responses
- English Americans tend to observe time and keep healthcare appointments
- Patients tend to comply with providers’ recommendation and prescribed medications, for instance, white patients had significantly higher adherence than minorities (Lauffenburger, Robinson, Oramasionwu and Fang, 2013)
- Given that English Americans have deviated from their cultural practices since the 19th century, is it relevant to focus on cultural impacts on healthcare provision among them?
- English Americans enjoy higher standards of healthcare services, is it necessary for the government to focus on them?
- Could you suggest factors that may influence an individual’s decision to donate an organ, blood, or receive organ transplant or blood transfusion?
Alden, D. L., and Cheung, A. H. (2000). Organ donation and culture: a comparison of Asian American and European American beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30(2), 293-314.
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Blakemore, C., and Jennett, S. (2001). Funeral practices: British customs. Web.
Bratton, C., Chavin, K., and Baliga, P. (2011). Racial disparities in organ donation and why. Current Opinion in Organ Transplant, 16(2), 243-9.
Gill, R. (1996). Whatever Happened to the American Way of Death? The Public Interest, (123).
Hanft, S. (n.d). English Americans. Web.
Knechtel, R. (n.d). How Baby Boomers Are Handling the Aging Process. Web.
Lauffenburger, J. C., Robinson, J. G., Oramasionwu, C., and Fang, G. (2013). Racial/Ethnic and Gender Gaps in the Use and Adherence of Evidence-Based Preventive Therapies among Elderly Medicare Part D Beneficiaries after Acute Myocardial Infarction. Circulation. Web.
Morgan, M., Kenten, C., and Deedat, S. (2013). Attitudes to deceased organ donation and registration as a donor among minority ethnic groups in North America and the U.K.: a synthesis of quantitative and qualitative research. Ethnicity & Health, 18(4), 367-90. Web.
O’Mahen, H. A., Henshaw, E., Jones, J. M., and Flynn, H. A. (2011). Stigma and depression during pregnancy: does race matter? Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 257-62. Web.
Wallechinsky, D., and Wallace, I. (1981). People, Races, Ethnicity in the U.S. English Americans. Web.